Publications by Peter Krogstrup – University of Copenhagen

Publications by Peter Krogstrup

  • 2019
    • Dispersive sensing in hybrid InAs/Al nanowires - Abstract
      • Dispersive charge sensing is realized in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowires in gate-defined single- and double-island device geometries. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured both in the frequency and time domain. Frequency-domain measurements were carried out as a function of frequency and power and yield a charge sensitivity of $1 \times 10^{-3} e/\sqrt{\rm Hz}$ for an 11 MHz measurement bandwidth. Time-domain measurements yield SNR > 1 for 20 $\mu$s integration time. At zero magnetic field, photon-assisted tunneling was detected dispersively in a double-island geometry, indicating coherent hybridization of the two superconducting islands. At an axial magnetic field of 0.6 T, subgap states are detected dispersively, demonstrating the suitability of the method for sensing in the topological regime.
    • Deividas Sabonis, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, David M. T. van Zanten, Judith Suter, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      1906.10659v1 [pdf]

    • Revealing charge-tunneling processes between a quantum dot and a superconducting island through gate sensing - Abstract
      • We report the detection and identification of charge-tunneling processes between a quantum dot and a superconducting island through radio-frequency gate sensing. We are able to resolve spin-dependent quasiparticle tunneling as well as two-particle tunneling involving Cooper-pairs. The sensor allows us to characterize the superconductor excitation spectrum, enabling us to access subgap states without transport. Our results provide crucial guidance for future dispersive parity measurements of Majorana modes, which can be realized by detecting the parity-dependent tunneling between dots and islands.
    • Jasper van Veen, Damaz de Jong, Lin Han, Christian Prosko, Peter Krogstrup, John D. Watson, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Wolfgang Pfaff
      1903.09066v1 [pdf]

    • Selective-area chemical beam epitaxy of in-plane InAs one-dimensional channels grown on InP(001), InP(111)B, and InP(110) surfaces - Abstract
      • We report on the selective-area chemical beam epitaxial growth of InAs in-plane, one-dimensional (1-D) channels using patterned SiO$_{2}$-coated InP(001), InP(111)B, and InP(110) substrates to establish a scalable platform for topological superconductor networks. Top-view scanning electron micrographs show excellent surface selectivity and dependence of major facet planes on the substrate orientations and ridge directions, and the ratios of the surface energies of the major facet planes were estimated. Detailed structural properties and defects in the InAs nanowires (NWs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopic analysis of cross-sections perpendicular to the NW ridge direction and along the NW ridge direction. Electrical transport properties of the InAs NWs were investigated using Hall bars, a field effect mobility device, a quantum dot, and an Aharonov-Bohm loop device, which reflect the strong spin-orbit interaction and phase-coherent transport characteristic in the selectively grown InAs systems. This study demonstrates that selective-area chemical beam epitaxy is a scalable approach to realize semiconductor 1-D channel networks with the excellent surface selectivity and this material system is suitable for quantum transport studies.
    • Joon Sue Lee, Sukgeun Choi, Mihir Pendharkar, Dan J. Pennachio, Brian Markman, Micheal Seas, Sebastian Koelling, Marcel A. Verheijen, Lucas Casparis, Karl D. Petersson, Ivana Petkovic, Vanessa Schaller, Mark J. W. Rodwell, Charles M. Marcus, Peter Krogstrup, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers, Chris J. Palmstrøm
      1808.04563v2 [pdf]

    • Current-phase relations of InAs nanowire Josephson junctions: from interacting to multi-mode regimes - Abstract
      • Gate-tunable semiconductor-superconductor nanowires with superconducting leads form exotic Josephson junctions that are a highly desirable platform for two types of qubits: those with topological superconductivity (Majorana qubits) and those based on tunable anharmonicity (gatemon qubits). Controlling their behavior, however, requires understanding their electrostatic environment and electronic structure. Here we study gated InAs nanowires with epitaxial aluminum shells. By measuring current-phase relations (CPR) and comparing them with analytical and numerical calculations, we show that we can tune the number of modes, determine the transparency of each mode, and tune into regimes in which electron-electron interactions are apparent, indicating the presence of a quantum dot. To take into account electrostatic and geometrical effects, we perform microscopic self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson numerical simulations, revealing the energy spectrum of Andreev states in the junction as well as their spatial distribution. Our work systematically demonstrates the effect of device geometry, gate voltage and phase bias on mode behavior, providing new insights into ongoing experimental efforts and predictive device design.
    • Sean Hart, Zheng Cui, Gerbold Menard, Mingtang Deng, Andrey Antipov, Roman M. Lutchyn, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus, Kathryn A. Moler
      1902.07804v1 [pdf]

    • Suppressing quasiparticle poisoning with a voltage-controlled filter - Abstract
      • We study single-electron charging events in an Al/InAs nanowire hybrid system with deliberately introduced gapless regions. The occupancy of a Coulomb island is detected using a nearby radio-frequency quantum dot as a charge sensor. We demonstrate that a 1 micron gapped segment of the wire can be used to efficiently suppress single electron poisoning of the gapless region and therefore protect the parity of the island while maintaining good electrical contact with a normal lead. In the absence of protection by charging energy, the 1e switching rate can be reduced below 200 per second. In the same configuration, we observe strong quantum charge fluctuations due to exchange of electron pairs between the island and the lead. The magnetic field dependence of the poisoning rate yields a zero-field superconducting coherence length of ~ 90 nm.
    • Gerbold C. Ménard, Filip K. Malinowski, Denise Puglia, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Torsten Karzig, Bela Bauer, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      1902.02689v1 [pdf]

    • Photon Assisted Tunneling of Zero Modes in a Majorana Wire - Abstract
      • Hybrid nanowires with proximity-induced superconductivity in the topological regime host Majorana zero modes (MZMs) at their ends, and networks of such structures can produce topologically protected qubits. In a double-island geometry where each segment hosts a pair of MZMs, inter-pair coupling mixes the charge parity of the islands and opens an energy gap between the even and odd charge states at the inter-island charge degeneracy. Here, we report on the spectroscopic measurement of such an energy gap in an InAs/Al double-island device by tracking the position of the microwave-induced quasiparticle (qp) transitions using a radio-frequency (rf) charge sensor. In zero magnetic field, photon assisted tunneling (PAT) of Cooper pairs gives rise to resonant lines in the 2e-2e periodic charge stability diagram. In the presence of a magnetic field aligned along the nanowire, resonance lines are observed parallel to the inter-island charge degeneracy of the 1e-1e periodic charge stability diagram, where the 1e periodicity results from a zero-energy sub-gap state that emerges in magnetic field. Resonant lines in the charge stability diagram indicate coherent photon assisted tunneling of single-electron states, changing the parity of the two islands. The dependence of resonant frequency on detuning indicates a sizable (GHz-scale) hybridization of zero modes across the junction separating islands.
    • David M. T. van Zanten, Deividas Sabonis, Judith Suter, Jukka I. Väyrynen, Torsten Karzig, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, Karl D. Petersson, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      1902.00797v1 [pdf]

    • Radio-Frequency Methods for Majorana-Based Quantum Devices: Fast Charge Sensing and Phase-Diagram Mapping - Abstract
      • Radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry is implemented in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowire systems designed to probe Majorana zero modes. Two approaches are presented. In the first, hybrid nanowire-based devices are part of a resonant circuit, allowing conductance to be measured as a function of several gate voltages ~40 times faster than using conventional low-frequency lock-in methods. In the second, nanowire devices are capacitively coupled to a nearby RF single-electron transistor made from a separate nanowire, allowing RF detection of charge, including charge-only measurement of the crossover from 2e inter-island charge transitions at zero magnetic field to 1e transitions at axial magnetic fields above 0.6 T, where a topological state is expected. Single-electron sensing yields signal-to-noise exceeding 3 and visibility 99.8% for a measurement time of 1 {\mu}s.
    • Davydas Razmadze, Deividas Sabonis, Filip K. Malinowski, Gerbold C. Menard, Sebastian Pauka, Hung Nguyen, David M. T. van Zanten, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Judith Suter, Peter Krogstrup, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 11, 064011 (2019) [ 1902.00789v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064011

    • Broadband microwave spectroscopy of semiconductor nanowire-based Cooper-pair transistors - Abstract
      • The Cooper-pair transistor (CPT), a small superconducting island enclosed between two Josephson weak links, is the atomic building block of various superconducting quantum circuits. Utilizing gate-tunable semiconductor channels as weak links, the energy scale associated with the Josephson tunneling can be changed with respect to the charging energy of the island, tuning the extent of its charge fluctuations. Here we directly demonstrate this control by mapping the energy level structure of a CPT made of an indium arsenide (InAs) nanowire (NW) with a superconducting aluminum (Al) shell. We extract the device parameters based on the exhaustive modeling of the quantum dynamics of the phase-biased nanowire CPT and directly measure the even-odd parity occupation ratio as a function of the device temperature, relevant for superconducting and prospective topological qubits.
    • Alex Proutski, Dominique Laroche, Bas van 't Hooft, Peter Krogstrup, Jesper Nygård, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Attila Geresdi
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 220504 (2019) [ 1901.10992v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.220504

  • 2018
    • Two-Impurity Yu-Shiba-Rusinov States in Coupled Quantum Dots - Abstract
      • Using Coulomb blockaded double quantum dots, we realize the superconducting analog of the celebrated two-impurity Kondo model. Focusing on gate regions with a single spin-1/2 on each dot, we demonstrate gate-tuned changes of the ground state from an interdot singlet to independently screened Yu-Shiba-Rusinov singlets. In contrast to the zero-temperature two-impurity Kondo model, the crossover between these two singlets is heralded by quantum phase boundaries to nearby doublet phases, in which only a single spin is screened. We identify all four ground states via transport measurements.
    • J. C. Estrada Saldaña, A. Vekris, R. Žitko, G. Steffensen, P. Krogstrup, J. Paaske, K. Grove-Rasmussen, J. Nygård
      1812.09303v1 [pdf]

    • Rapid detection of coherent tunneling in an InAs nanowire quantum dot through dispersive gate sensing - Abstract
      • Dispersive sensing is a powerful technique that enables scalable and high-fidelity readout of solid-state quantum bits. In particular, gate-based dispersive sensing has been proposed as the readout mechanism for future topological qubits, which can be measured by single electrons tunneling through zero-energy modes. The development of such a readout requires resolving the coherent charge tunneling amplitude from a quantum dot in a Majorana-zero-mode host system faithfully on short time scales. Here, we demonstrate rapid single-shot detection of a coherent single-electron tunneling amplitude between InAs nanowire quantum dots. We have realized a sensitive dispersive detection circuit by connecting a sub-GHz, lumped element microwave resonator to a high-lever arm gate on one of dots. The resulting large dot-resonator coupling leads to an observed dispersive shift that is of the order of the resonator linewidth at charge degeneracy. This shift enables us to differentiate between Coulomb blockade and resonance, corresponding to the scenarios expected for qubit state readout, with a signal to noise ratio exceeding 2 for an integration time of 1 microsecond. Our result paves the way for single shot measurements of fermion parity on microsecond timescales in topological qubits.
    • Damaz de Jong, Jasper van Veen, Luca Binci, Amrita Singh, Peter Krogstrup, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Wolfgang Pfaff, John D. Watson
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 11, 044061 (2019) [ 1812.08609v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.044061

    • Spin-Orbit Splitting of Andreev States Revealed by Microwave Spectroscopy - Abstract
      • We have performed microwave spectroscopy of Andreev states in superconducting weak links tailored in an InAs-Al (core-full shell) epitaxially-grown nanowire. The spectra present distinctive features, with bundles of four lines crossing when the superconducting phase difference across the weak link is 0 or $\pi.$ We interpret these as arising from zero-field spin-split Andreev states. A simple analytical model, which takes into account the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in a nanowire containing several transverse subbands, explains these features and their evolution with magnetic field. Our results show that the spin degree of freedom is addressable in Josephson junctions, and constitute a first step towards its manipulation.
    • L. Tosi, C. Metzger, M. F. Goffman, C. Urbina, H. Pothier, Sunghun Park, A. Levy Yeyati, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. X 9, 011010 (2019) [ 1810.02591v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.9.011010

    • Supercurrent in a Double Quantum Dot - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the Josephson effect in a serial double quantum dot defined in a nanowire with epitaxial superconducting leads. The supercurrent stability diagram adopts a honeycomb pattern with electron-hole and left-right reflection symmetry. We observe sharp discontinuities in the magnitude of the critical current, $I_c$, as a function of dot occupation, related to doublet to singlet ground state transitions. Detuning of the energy levels offers a tuning knob for $I_c$, which attains a maximum at zero detuning. The consistency between experiment and theory indicates that our device is a faithful realization of the two-impurity Anderson model.
    • J. C. Estrada Saldaña, A. Vekris, G. Steffensen, R. Žitko, P. Krogstrup, J. Paaske, K. Grove-Rasmussen, J. Nygård
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 257701 (2018) [ 1808.05837v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.257701

    • Effective g-factor in Majorana Wires - Abstract
      • We use the effective g-factor of subgap states, g*, in hybrid InAs nanowires with an epitaxial Al shell to investigate how the superconducting density of states is distributed between the semiconductor core and the metallic shell. We find a step-like reduction of g* and improved hard gap with reduced carrier density in the nanowire, controlled by gate voltage. These observations are relevant for Majorana devices, which require tunable carrier density and g* exceeding the g-factor of the proximitizing superconductor. Additionally, we observe the closing and reopening of a gap in the subgap spectrum coincident with the appearance of a zero-bias conductance peak.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, M. T. Deng, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 037703 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.037703

    • p-GaAs Nanowire Metal–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with Near-Thermal Limit Gating - Abstract
      • Difficulties in obtaining high-performance p-type transistors and gate insulator charge-trapping effects present two major challenges for III-V complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics. We report a p-GaAs nanowire metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) that eliminates the need for a gate insulator by exploiting the Schottky barrier at the metal-GaAs interface. Our device beats the best-performing p-GaSb nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), giving a typical sub-threshold swing of 62 mV/dec, within 4% of the thermal limit, on-off ratio $\sim 10^{5}$, on-resistance ~700 k$\Omega$, contact resistance ~30 k$\Omega$, peak transconductance 1.2 $\mu$S/$\mu$m and high-fidelity ac operation at frequencies up to 10 kHz. The device consists of a GaAs nanowire with an undoped core and heavily Be-doped shell. We carefully etch back the nanowire at the gate locations to obtain Schottky-barrier insulated gates whilst leaving the doped shell intact at the contacts to obtain low contact resistance. Our device opens a path to all-GaAs nanowire MESFET complementary circuits with simplified fabrication and improved performance.
    • A. R. Ullah, F. Meyer, J. G. Gluschke, S. Naureen, P. Caroff, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygard, A. P. Micolich
      Journal reference: Nano Letters 18, 5673-5680 (2018) [ 1809.10479v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b02249

    • Flux-induced Majorana modes in full-shell nanowires - Abstract
      • We demonstrate a novel means of creating Majorana zero modes using magnetic flux applied to a full superconducting shell surrounding a semiconducting nanowire core, unifying approaches based on proximitized nanowires and vortices in topological superconductors. In the destructive Little-Parks regime, reentrant regions of superconductivity are associated with integer number of phase windings in the shell. Tunneling into the core reveals a hard induced gap near zero applied flux, corresponding to zero phase winding, and a gapped region with a discrete zero-energy state for flux around {\Phi}_0 = h/2e, corresponding to 2{\pi} phase winding. Coulomb peak spacing in full-shell islands around one applied flux shows exponentially decreasing deviation from 1e periodicity with device length, consistent with the picture of Majorana modes located at the ends of the wire.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, M. -T. Deng, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      1809.05513v1 [pdf]

    • Selective-Area-Grown Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids: A Basis for Topological Networks - Abstract
      • We introduce selective area grown hybrid InAs/Al nanowires based on molecular beam epitaxy, allowing arbitrary semiconductor-superconductor networks containing loops and branches. Transport reveals a hard induced gap and unpoisoned 2e-periodic Coulomb blockade, with temperature dependent 1e features in agreement with theory. Coulomb peak spacing in parallel magnetic field displays overshoot, indicating an oscillating discrete near-zero subgap state consistent with device length. Finally, we investigate a loop network, finding strong spin-orbit coupling and a coherence length of several microns. These results demonstrate the potential of this platform for scalable topological networks among other applications.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, A. M. Whiticar, M. T. Deng, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, C. J. Palmstrøm, S. Marti-Sanchez, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. Casparis, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 147701 (2018) [ 1802.04210v3 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.147701

    • Hybridization at Superconductor-Semiconductor Interfaces - Abstract
      • Hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices are currently one of the most promising platforms for realizing Majorana zero modes. Their topological properties are controlled by the band alignment of the two materials, as well as the electrostatic environment, which are currently not well understood. Here, we pursue to fill in this gap and address the role of band bending and superconductor-semiconductor hybridization in such devices by analyzing a gated single Al-InAs interface using a self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson approach. Our numerical analysis shows that the band bending leads to an interface quantum well, which localizes the charge in the system near the superconductor-semiconductor interface. We investigate the hybrid band structure and analyze its response to varying the gate voltage and thickness of the Al layer. This is done by studying the hybridization degrees of the individual subbands, which determine the induced pairing and effective $g$-factors. The numerical results are backed by approximate analytical expressions which further clarify key aspects of the band structure. We find that one can obtain states with strong superconductor-semiconductor hybridization at the Fermi energy, but this requires a fine balance of parameters, with the most important constraint being on the width of the Al layer. In fact, in the regime of interest, we find an almost periodic dependence of the hybridization degree on the Al width, with a period roughly equal to the thickness of an Al monolayer. This implies that disorder and shape irregularities, present in realistic devices, may play an important role for averaging out this sensitivity and, thus, may be necessary for stabilizing the topological phase.
    • August E. G. Mikkelsen, Panagiotis Kotetes, Peter Krogstrup, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. X 8, 031040 (2018) [ 1801.03439v3 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.8.031040

    • Magnetic-field-dependent quasiparticle dynamics of nanowire single-Cooper-pair transistors - Abstract
      • Parity control of superconducting islands hosting Majorana zero modes (MZMs) is required to operate topological qubits made from proximitized semiconductor nanowires. We, therefore, study parity effects in hybrid InAs-Al single-Cooper-pair transistors (SCPTs) as a first step. In particular, we investigate the gate-charge supercurrent modulation and observe a consistent 2$e$-periodic pattern indicating a general lack of low-energy subgap states in these nanowires at zero magnetic field. In a parallel magnetic field, an even-odd pattern develops with a gate-charge spacing that oscillates as a function of field demonstrating that the modulation pattern is sensitive to the presence of a single subgap state. In addition, we find that the parity lifetime of the SCPT decreases exponentially with magnetic field as the subgap state approaches zero energy. Our work highlights the important role that intentional quasiparticle traps and superconducting gap engineering would play in topological qubits that require quenching of the island charge dispersion.
    • Jasper van Veen, Alex Proutski, Torsten Karzig, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Roman M. Lutchyn, Jesper Nygård, Peter Krogstrup, Attila Geresdi, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, John D. Watson
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 98, 174502 (2018) [ 1805.10266v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.98.174502

    • Field effect enhancement in buffered quantum nanowire networks - Abstract
      • III-V semiconductor nanowires have shown great potential in various quantum transport experiments. However, realizing a scalable high-quality nanowire-based platform that could lead to quantum information applications has been challenging. Here, we study the potential of selective area growth by molecular beam epitaxy of InAs nanowire networks grown on GaAs-based buffer layers. The buffered geometry allows for substantial elastic strain relaxation and a strong enhancement of field effect mobility. We show that the networks possess strong spin-orbit interaction and long phase coherence lengths with a temperature dependence indicating ballistic transport. With these findings, and the compatibility of the growth method with hybrid epitaxy, we conclude that the material platform fulfills the requirements for a wide range of quantum experiments and applications.
    • Filip Krizek, Joachim E. Sestoft, Pavel Aseev, Sara Marti-Sanchez, Saulius Vaitiekenas, Lucas Casparis, Sabbir A. Khan, Yu Liu, Tomas Stankevic, Alexander M. Whiticar, Alexandra Fursina, Frenk Boekhout, Rene Koops, Emanuele Uccelli, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Charles M. Marcus, Jordi Arbiol, Peter Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 093401 (2018) [ 1802.07808v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.093401

    • Majorana zero modes in superconductor–semiconductor heterostructures - Abstract
      • Realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes in the laboratory is one of the major goals in condensed matter physics. We review the current status of this rapidly-developing field, focusing on semiconductor-superconductor proposals for topological superconductivity. Material science progress and robust signatures of Majorana zero modes in recent experiments are discussed. After a brief introduction to the subject, we outline several next-generation experiments probing exotic properties of Majorana zero modes, including fusion rules and non-Abelian exchange statistics. Finally, we discuss prospects for implementing Majorana-based topological quantum computation in these systems.
    • R. M. Lutchyn, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus, Y. Oreg
      Journal reference: Nat Rev Mater 3, 52 - 68 (2018) [ 1707.04899v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41578-018-0003-1

    • Near-thermal limit gating in heavily doped III-V semiconductor nanowires using polymer electrolytes - Abstract
      • Doping is a common route to reducing nanowire transistor on-resistance but has limits. High doping level gives significant loss in gate performance and ultimately complete gate failure. We show that electrolyte gating remains effective even when the Be doping in our GaAs nanowires is so high that traditional metal-oxide gates fail. In this regime we obtain a combination of sub-threshold swing and contact resistance that surpasses the best existing p-type nanowire MOSFETs. Our sub-threshold swing of 75 mV/dec is within 25% of the room-temperature thermal limit and comparable with n-InP and n-GaAs nanowire MOSFETs. Our results open a new path to extending the performance and application of nanowire transistors, and motivate further work on improved solid electrolytes for nanoscale device applications.
    • A. R. Ullah, D. J. Carrad, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, A. P. Micolich
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 025601 (2018) [ 1710.06950v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.025601

    • Voltage-controlled superconducting quantum bus - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the ability of an epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowire to serve as a field-effect switch to tune a superconducting cavity. Two superconducting gatemon qubits are coupled to the cavity, which acts as a quantum bus. Using a gate voltage to control the superconducting switch yields up to a factor of 8 change in qubit-qubit coupling between the on and off states without detrimental effect on qubit coherence. High-bandwidth operation of the coupling switch on nanosecond timescales degrades qubit coherence.
    • L. Casparis, N. J. Pearson, A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, F. Kuemmeth, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 085434 (2019) [ 1802.01327v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.085434

  • 2017
    • Engineering hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires for stronger topological protection - Abstract
      • The combination of strong spin-orbit coupling, large $g$-factors, and the coupling to a superconductor can be used to create a topologically protected state in a semiconductor nanowire. Here we report on growth and characterization of hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires, with varying composition and crystal structure. We find the strongest spin-orbit interaction at intermediate compositions in zincblende InAs$_{1-x}$Sb$_{x}$ nanowires, exceeding that of both InAs and InSb materials, confirming recent theoretical studies \cite{winkler2016topological}. We show that the epitaxial InAsSb/Al interfaces allows for a hard induced superconducting gap and 2$e$ transport in Coulomb charging experiments, similar to experiments on InAs/Al and InSb/Al materials, and find measurements consistent with topological phase transitions at low magnetic fields due to large effective $g$-factors. Finally we present a method to grow pure wurtzite InAsSb nanowires which are predicted to exhibit even stronger spin-orbit coupling than the zincblende structure.
    • Joachim E. Sestoft, Thomas Kanne, Aske Nørskov Gejl, Merlin von Soosten, Jeremy S. Yodh, Daniel Sherman, Brian Tarasinski, Michael Wimmer, Erik Johnson, Mingtang Deng, Jesper Nygård, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Charles M. Marcus, Peter Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 044202 (2018) [ 1711.06864v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.044202

    • Observation of the 4π-periodic Josephson effect in indium arsenide nanowires - Abstract
      • Quantum computation by non-Abelian Majorana zero modes (MZMs) offers an approach to achieve fault tolerance by encoding quantum information in the non-local charge parity states of semiconductor nanowire networks in the topological superconductor regime. Thus far, experimental studies of MZMs chiefly relied on single electron tunneling measurements which leads to decoherence of the quantum information stored in the MZM. As a next step towards topological quantum computation, charge parity conserving experiments based on the Josephson effect are required, which can also help exclude suggested non-topological origins of the zero bias conductance anomaly. Here we report the direct measurement of the Josephson radiation frequency in InAs nanowires with epitaxial aluminium shells. For the first time, we observe the $4\pi$-periodic Josephson effect above a magnetic field of $\approx 200\,$mT, consistent with the estimated and measured topological phase transition of similar devices.
    • Dominique Laroche, Daniël Bouman, David J. van Woerkom, Alex Proutski, Chaitanya Murthy, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Chetan Nayak, Ruben J. J. van Gulik, Jesper Nygård, Peter Krogstrup, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Attila Geresdi
      Journal reference: Nature Communications 10, 245 (2019) [ 1712.08459v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08161-2

    • Nonlocality of Majorana modes in hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • Emergent Majorana bound states (MBSs) in topological superconductors appear capable of providing a naturally fault-tolerant basis for quantum computing. Key to topological protection is the separation, or non-locality, of MBSs, which makes Majorana qubits immune to decoherence by a local disturbance. While a number of experiments have reported signatures of MBSs based on zero-bias peaks in tunneling conductance, the non-local character of Majorana modes -- in contrast to Andreev bound states at zero energy -- has not been previously demonstrated. Here, we experimentally demonstrate non-locality of Majorana modes in epitaxial semiconductor-superconducting nanowires. This is achieved using recent theory showing that non-locality can be measured via the interaction of the zero-energy state in the nanowire with a quantum-dot state at one end. By comparing coupling to even versus odd occupied quantum dots states, we measure a high degree of non-locality, consistent with topological MBSs, as well as the spin canting angles of the Majorana modes.
    • M. T. Deng, S. Vaitiekénas, E. Prada, P. San-Jose, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, R. Aguado, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 98, 085125 (2018) [ 1712.03536v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.98.085125

    • Evolution of Nanowire Transmon Qubits and Their Coherence in a Magnetic Field - Abstract
      • We present an experimental study of nanowire transmons at zero and applied in-plane magnetic field. With Josephson non-linearities provided by the nanowires, our qubits operate at higher magnetic fields than standard transmons. Nanowire transmons exhibit coherence up to 70 mT, where the induced superconducting gap in the nanowire closes. We demonstrate that on-chip charge noise coupling to the Josephson energy plays a dominant role in the qubit dephasing. This takes the form of strongly-coupled two-level systems switching on 100 ms timescales and a more weakly coupled background producing $1/f$ noise. Several observations, including the field dependence of qubit energy relaxation and dephasing, are not fully understood, inviting further experimental investigation and theory. Using nanowires with a thinner superconducting shell will enable operation of these circuits up to 0.5 T, a regime relevant for topological quantum computation.
    • F. Luthi, T. Stavenga, O. W. Enzing, A. Bruno, C. Dickel, N. K. Langford, M. A. Rol, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, P. Krogstrup, L. DiCarlo
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 100502 (2018) [ 1711.07961v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.100502

    • Direct Microwave Measurement of Andreev-Bound-State Dynamics in a Semiconductor-Nanowire Josephson Junction - Abstract
      • The modern understanding of the Josephson effect in mesosopic devices derives from the physics of Andreev bound states, fermionic modes that are localized in a superconducting weak link. Recently, Josephson junctions constructed using semiconducting nanowires have led to the realization of superconducting qubits with gate-tunable Josephson energies. We have used a microwave circuit QED architecture to detect Andreev bound states in such a gate-tunable junction based on an aluminum-proximitized InAs nanowire. We demonstrate coherent manipulation of these bound states, and track the bound-state fermion parity in real time. Individual parity-switching events due to non-equilibrium quasiparticles are observed with a characteristic timescale $T_\mathrm{parity} = 160\pm 10~\mathrm{\mu s}$. The $T_\mathrm{parity}$ of a topological nanowire junction sets a lower bound on the bandwidth required for control of Majorana bound states.
    • M. Hays, G. de Lange, K. Serniak, D. J. van Woerkom, D. Bouman, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, A. Geresdi, M. H. Devoret
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 047001 (2018) [ 1711.01645v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.047001

    • Microwave spectroscopy of spinful Andreev bound states in ballistic semiconductor Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • The superconducting proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires has recently enabled the study of new superconducting architectures, such as gate-tunable superconducting qubits and multiterminal Josephson junctions. As opposed to their metallic counterparts, the electron density in semiconductor nanosystems is tunable by external electrostatic gates providing a highly scalable and in-situ variation of the device properties. In addition, semiconductors with large $g$-factor and spin-orbit coupling have been shown to give rise to exotic phenomena in superconductivity, such as $\varphi_0$ Josephson junctions and the emergence of Majorana bound states. Here, we report microwave spectroscopy measurements that directly reveal the presence of Andreev bound states (ABS) in ballistic semiconductor channels. We show that the measured ABS spectra are the result of transport channels with gate-tunable, high transmission probabilities up to $0.9$, which is required for gate-tunable Andreev qubits and beneficial for braiding schemes of Majorana states. For the first time, we detect excitations of a spin-split pair of ABS and observe symmetry-broken ABS, a direct consequence of the spin-orbit coupling in the semiconductor.
    • David J. van Woerkom, Alex Proutski, Bernard van Heck, Daniël Bouman, Jukka I. Väyrynen, Leonid I. Glazman, Peter Krogstrup, Jesper Nygård, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Attila Geresdi
      Journal reference: Nature Physics 13, 876 (2017) [ 1609.00333v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys4150

    • Conduction channels of an InAs-Al nanowire Josephson weak link - Abstract
      • We present a quantitative characterization of an electrically tunable Josephson junction defined in an InAs nanowire proximitized by an epitax-ially-grown superconducting Al shell. The gate-dependence of the number of conduction channels and of the set of transmission coefficients are extracted from the highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Although the transmissions evolve non-monotonically, the number of independent channels can be tuned, and configurations with a single quasi-ballistic channel achieved.
    • M. F. Goffman, C. Urbina, H. Pothier, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, P. Krogstrup
      Journal reference: New Journal of Physics, Institute of Physics: Open Access Journals, 2017, 19, pp.092002 [ 1706.09150v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aa7641

    • Scaling of Majorana Zero-Bias Conductance Peaks - Abstract
      • We report an experimental study of the scaling of zero-bias conductance peaks compatible with Majorana zero modes as a function of magnetic field, tunnel coupling, and temperature in one-dimensional structures fabricated from an epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure. Results are consistent with theory, including a peak conductance that is proportional to tunnel coupling, saturates at $2e^2/h$, decreases as expected with field-dependent gap, and collapses onto a simple scaling function in the dimensionless ratio of temperature and tunnel coupling.
    • Fabrizio Nichele, Asbjorn C. C. Drachmann, Alexander M. Whiticar, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Henri J. Suominen, Antonio Fornieri, Tian Wang, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Candice Thomas, Anthony T. Hatke, Peter Krogstrup, Michael J. Manfra, Karsten Flensberg, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 136803 (2017) [ 1706.07033v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.136803

    • Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices - Abstract
      • Semiconductor nanowires provide an ideal platform for various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasi-particles can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought in contact with a superconductor. To fully exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons for topological quantum computing, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of single-crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here, we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks having a predefined number of superconducting islands. Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. Quantum transport measurements of nanowire "hashtags" reveal Aharonov-Bohm and weak-antilocalization effects, indicating a phase coherent system with strong spin-orbit coupling. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens new avenues for the realization of epitaxial 3-dimensional quantum device architectures.
    • Sasa Gazibegovic, Diana Car, Hao Zhang, Stijn C. Balk, John A. Logan, Michiel W. A. de Moor, Maja C. Cassidy, Rudi Schmits, Di Xu, Guanzhong Wang, Peter Krogstrup, Roy L. M. Op het Veld, Jie Shen, Daniël Bouman, Borzoyeh Shojaei, Daniel Pennachio, Joon Sue Lee, Petrus J. van Veldhoven, Sebastian Koelling, Marcel A. Verheijen, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Chris J. Palmstrøm, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers
      Journal reference: Nature 548, 434-438 (2017) [ 1705.01480v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1038/nature23468

    • Hybrid Nanowire Ion-to-Electron Transducers for Integrated Bioelectronic Circuitry - Abstract
      • A key task in the emerging field of bioelectronics is the transduction between ionic/protonic and electronic signals at high fidelity. This is a considerable challenge since the two carrier types exhibit intrinsically different physics and are best supported by very different materials types -- electronic signals in inorganic semiconductors and ionic/protonic signals in organic or bio-organic polymers, gels or electrolytes. Here we demonstrate a new class of organic-inorganic transducing interface featuring semiconducting nanowires electrostatically gated using a solid proton-transporting hygroscopic polymer. This model platform allows us to study the basic transducing mechanisms as well as deliver high fidelity signal conversion by tapping into and drawing together the best candidates from traditionally disparate realms of electronic materials research. By combining complementary n- and p-type transducers we demonstrate functional logic with significant potential for scaling towards high-density integrated bioelectronic circuitry.
    • D. J. Carrad, A. B. Mostert, A. R. Ullah, A. M. Burke, H. J. Joyce, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, P. Meredith, A. P. Micolich
      Journal reference: Nano Letters 17, 827-833 (2017) [ 1705.00611v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04075

    • Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires - Abstract
      • GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly-confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin-orbit effects, motivating our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top-gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately-doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good transistor performance for moderate doping, with conduction freezing out at low temperature for lowly-doped nanowires and inability to reach a clear off-state under gating for the highly-doped nanowires. Our best devices give on-state conductivity 95 nS, off-state conductivity 2 pS, on-off ratio ~$10^{4}$, and sub-threshold slope 50 mV/dec at T = 4 K. Lastly, we made a device featuring a moderately-doped nanowire with annealed contacts and multiple top-gates. Top-gate sweeps show a plateau in the sub-threshold region that is reproducible in separate cool-downs and indicative of possible conductance quantization highlighting the potential for future quantum device studies in this material system.
    • A. R. Ullah, J. G. Gluschke, P. Krogstrup, C. B. Sørensen, J. Nygård, A. P. Micolich
      Journal reference: Nanotechnology 28, 134005 (2017) [ 1704.03957v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa6067

    • Anharmonicity of a superconducting qubit with a few-mode Josephson junction - Abstract
      • Coherent operation of gate-voltage-controlled hybrid transmon qubits (gatemons) based on semiconductor nanowires was recently demonstrated. Here we experimentally investigate the anharmonicity in epitaxial InAs-Al Josephson junctions, a key parameter for their use as a qubit. Anharmonicity is found to be reduced by roughly a factor of two compared to conventional metallic junctions, and dependent on gate voltage. Experimental results are consistent with a theoretical model, indicating that Josephson coupling is mediated by a small number of highly transmitting modes in the semiconductor junction.
    • A. Kringhøj, L. Casparis, M. Hell, T. W. Larsen, F. Kuemmeth, M. Leijnse, K. Flensberg, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 97, 060508 (2018) [ 1703.05643v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.060508

    • Current–phase relations of few-mode InAs nanowire Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • Gate-tunable semiconductor nanowires with superconducting leads have great potential for quantum computation and as model systems for mesoscopic Josephson junctions. The supercurrent, $I$, versus the phase, $\phi$, across the junction is called the current-phase relation (CPR). It can reveal not only the amplitude of the critical current, but also the number of modes and their transmission. We measured the CPR of many individual InAs nanowire Josephson junctions, one junction at a time. Both the amplitude and shape of the CPR varied between junctions, with small critical currents and skewed CPRs indicating few-mode junctions with high transmissions. In a gate-tunable junction, we found that the CPR varied with gate voltage: Near the onset of supercurrent, we observed behavior consistent with resonant tunneling through a single, highly transmitting mode. The gate dependence is consistent with modeled subband structure that includes an effective tunneling barrier due to an abrupt change in the Fermi level at the boundary of the gate-tuned region. These measurements of skewed, tunable, few-mode CPRs are promising both for applications that require anharmonic junctions and for Majorana readout proposals.
    • Eric M. Spanton, Mingtang Deng, Saulius Vaitiekėnas, Peter Krogstrup, Jesper Nygård, Charles M. Marcus, Kathryn A. Moler
      Journal reference: Nature Physics (2017) [ 1701.01188v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys4224

    • Majorana bound state in a coupled quantum-dot hybrid-nanowire system - Abstract
      • Hybrid nanowires combining semiconductor and superconductor materials appear well suited for the creation, detection, and control of Majorana bound states (MBSs). We demonstrate the emergence of MBSs from coalescing Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a hybrid InAs nanowire with epitaxial Al, using a quantum dot at the end of the nanowire as a spectrometer. Electrostatic gating tuned the nanowire density to a regime of one or a few ABSs. In an applied axial magnetic field, a topological phase emerges in which ABSs move to zero energy and remain there, forming MBSs. We observed hybridization of the MBS with the end-dot bound state, which is in agreement with a numerical model. The ABS/MBS spectra provide parameters that are useful for understanding topological superconductivity in this system.
    • M. T. Deng, S. Vaitiekenas, E. B. Hansen, J. Danon, M. Leijnse, K. Flensberg, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Science 354, 1557-1562 (2016) [ 1612.07989v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf3961

  • 2016
    • Transport Signatures of Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Majorana Island - Abstract
      • We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (~ 1 {\mu}s) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (> 10 {\mu}s). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. In energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.
    • S. M. Albrecht, E. B. Hansen, A. P. Higginbotham, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, J. Danon, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 137701 (2017) [ 1612.05748v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.137701

    • InAs Nanowire with Epitaxial Aluminum as a Single-Electron Transistor with Fixed Tunnel Barriers - Abstract
      • We report on fabrication of single-electron transistors using InAs nanowires with epitaxial aluminium with fixed tunnel barriers made of aluminium oxide. The devices exhibit a hard superconducting gap induced by the proximized aluminium cover shell and they behave as metallic single-electron transistors. In contrast to the typical few channel contacts in semiconducting devices, our approach forms opaque multichannel contacts to a semiconducting wire and thus provides a complementary way to study them. In addition, we confirm that unwanted extra quantum dots can appear at the surface of the nanowire. Their presence is prevented in our devices, and also by inserting a protective layer of GaAs between the InAs and Al, the latter being suitable for standard measurement methods.
    • M. Taupin, E. Mannila, P. Krogstrup, V. F. Maisi, H. Nguyen, S. M. Albrecht, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus, J. P. Pekola
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 6, 054017 (2016) [ 1601.01149v4 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.6.054017

    • Topological Phases in InAs$_{1-x}$Sb$_x$: From Novel Topological Semimetal to Majorana Wire - Abstract
      • Superconductor proximitized one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) are at this time the most promising candidates for the realization of topological quantum information processing. In current experiments the SOI originates predominantly from extrinsic fields, induced by finite size effects and applied gate voltages. The dependence of the topological transition in these devices on microscopic details makes scaling to a large number of devices difficult unless a material with dominant intrinsic bulk SOI is used. Here we show that wires made of certain ordered alloys InAs$_{1-x}$Sb$_x$ have spin-splittings up to 20 times larger than those reached in pristine InSb wires. In particular, we show this for a stable ordered CuPt-structure at $x = 0.5$, which has an inverted band ordering and realizes a novel type of a topological semimetal with triple degeneracy points in the bulk spectrum that produce topological surface Fermi arcs. Experimentally achievable strains can drive this compound either into a topological insulator phase, or restore the normal band ordering making the CuPt-ordered InAs$_{0.5}$Sb$_{0.5}$ a semiconductor with a large intrinsic linear in $k$ bulk spin splitting.
    • Georg W. Winkler, QuanSheng Wu, Matthias Troyer, Peter Krogstrup, Alexey A. Soluyanov
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 076403 (2016) [ 1602.07001v3 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.076403

    • Normal, superconducting and topological regimes of hybrid double quantum dots - Abstract
      • Epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials are an excellent basis for studying mesoscopic and topological superconductivity, as the semiconductor inherits a hard superconducting gap while retaining tunable carrier density. Here, we investigate double-quantum-dot devices made from InAs nanowires with a patterned epitaxial Al two-facet shell that proximitizes two gate-defined segments along the nanowire. We follow the evolution of mesoscopic superconductivity and charging energy in this system as a function of magnetic field and voltage-tuned barriers. Inter-dot coupling is varied from strong to weak using side gates, and the ground state is varied between normal, superconducting, and topological regimes by applying a magnetic field. We identify the topological transition by tracking the spacing between successive cotunneling peaks as a function of axial magnetic field and show that the individual dots host weakly hybridized Majorana modes.
    • D. Sherman, J. S. Yodh, S. M. Albrecht, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 12, 212 (2017) [ 1605.01865v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.227

    • Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands - Abstract
      • Majorana zero modes are quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems that have been proposed as building blocks of fault-tolerant quantum computers [1]. They are expected to exhibit non-Abelian particle statistics, in contrast to the usual statistics of fermions and bosons, enabling quantum operations to be performed by braiding isolated modes around one another. Quantum braiding operations are topologically protected insofar as these modes are pinned near zero energy, and the pinning is predicted to be exponential as the modes become spatially separated. Following theoretical proposals, several experiments have identified signatures of Majorana modes in proximitized nanowires and atomic chains, with small mode-splitting potentially explained by hybridization of Majoranas. Here, we use Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy in an InAs nanowire segment with epitaxial aluminum, which forms a proximity-induced superconducting Coulomb island (a Majorana island) that is isolated from normal-metal leads by tunnel barriers, to measure the splitting of near-zero-energy Majorana modes. We observe exponential suppression of energy splitting with increasing wire length. For short devices of a few hundred nanometers, sub-gap state energies oscillate as the magnetic field is varied, as is expected for hybridized Majorana modes. Splitting decreases by a factor of about ten for each half micrometer of increased wire length. For devices longer than about one micrometer, transport in strong magnetic fields occurs through a zero-energy state that is energetically isolated from a continuum, yielding uniformly spaced Coulomb-blockade conductance peaks, consistent with teleportation via Majorana modes. Our results help explain the trivial-to-topological transition in finite systems and to quantify the scaling of topological protection with end-mode separation.
    • S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature 531, 206 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17162

    • Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation - Abstract
      • The thermal gradient along indium-arsenide nanowires was engineered by a combination of fabricated micro- trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.
    • R. Tanta, M. H. Madsen, Z. Liao, P. Krogstrup, T. Vosch, J. Nygard, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 243101 (2015) [ 1601.06583v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4937442

  • 2015
    • Gatemon Benchmarking and Two-Qubit Operations - Abstract
      • Recent experiments have demonstrated superconducting transmon qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions. These hybrid gatemon qubits utilize field effect tunability characteristic for semiconductors to allow complete qubit control using gate voltages, potentially a technological advantage over conventional flux-controlled transmons. Here, we present experiments with a two-qubit gatemon circuit. We characterize qubit coherence and stability and use randomized benchmarking to demonstrate single-qubit gate errors below 0.7% for all gates, including voltage-controlled $Z$ rotations. We show coherent capacitive coupling between two gatemons and coherent swap operations. Finally, we perform a two-qubit controlled-phase gate with an estimated fidelity of 91%, demonstrating the potential of gatemon qubits for building scalable quantum processors.
    • L. Casparis, T. W. Larsen, M. S. Olsen, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 150505 (2016) [ 1512.09195v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.150505

    • Two-dimensional epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures: A platform for topological superconducting networks - Abstract
      • Progress in the emergent field of topological superconductivity relies on synthesis of new material combinations, combining superconductivity, low density, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). For example, theory [1-4] indicates that the interface between a one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor (Sm) with strong SOC and a superconductor (S) hosts Majorana modes with nontrivial topological properties [5-8]. Recently, epitaxial growth of Al on InAs nanowires was shown to yield a high quality S-Sm system with uniformly transparent interfaces [9] and a hard induced gap, indicted by strongly suppressed sub gap tunneling conductance [10]. Here we report the realization of a two-dimensional (2D) InAs/InGaAs heterostructure with epitaxial Al, yielding a planar S-Sm system with structural and transport characteristics as good as the epitaxial wires. The realization of 2D epitaxial S-Sm systems represent a significant advance over wires, allowing extended networks via top-down processing. Among numerous potential applications, this new material system can serve as a platform for complex networks of topological superconductors with gate-controlled Majorana zero modes [1-4]. We demonstrate gateable Josephson junctions and a highly transparent 2D S-Sm interface based on the product of excess current and normal state resistance.
    • J. Shabani, M. Kjaergaard, H. J. Suominen, Younghyun Kim, F. Nichele, K. Pakrouski, T. Stankevic, R. M. Lutchyn, P. Krogstrup, R. Feidenhans'l, S. Kraemer, C. Nayak, M. Troyer, C. M. Marcus, C. J. Palmstrøm
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 155402 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.155402

    • Semiconductor-Nanowire-Based Superconducting Qubit - Abstract
      • We introduce a hybrid qubit based on a semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer. Josephson energy of the transmon-like device ("gatemon") is controlled by an electrostatic gate that depletes carriers in a semiconducting weak link region. Strong coupling to an on-chip microwave cavity and coherent qubit control via gate voltage pulses is demonstrated, yielding reasonably long relaxation times (0.8 {\mu}s) and dephasing times (1 {\mu}s), exceeding gate operation times by two orders of magnitude, in these first-generation devices. Because qubit control relies on voltages rather than fluxes, dissipation in resistive control lines is reduced, screening reduces crosstalk, and the absence of flux control allows operation in a magnetic field, relevant for topological quantum information.
    • T. W. Larsen, K. D. Petersson, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 127001 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.127001

    • Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Many present and future applications of superconductivity would benefit from electrostatic control of carrier density and tunneling rates, the hallmark of semiconductor devices. One particularly exciting application is the realization of topological superconductivity as a basis for quantum information processing. Proposals in this direction based on proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires are appealing because the key ingredients are currently in hand. However, previous instances of proximitized semiconductors show significant tunneling conductance below the superconducting gap, suggesting a continuum of subgap states---a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial Al-InAs superconductor-semiconductor nanowires. The hard gap, along with favorable material properties and gate-tunability, makes this new hybrid system attractive for a number of applications, as well as fundamental studies of mesoscopic superconductivity.
    • W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, T. S. Jespersen, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 10, 232 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.306

    • Parity lifetime of bound states in a proximitized semiconductor nanowire - Abstract
      • Quasiparticle excitations can compromise the performance of superconducting devices, causing high frequency dissipation, decoherence in Josephson qubits, and braiding errors in proposed Majorana-based topological quantum computers. Quasiparticle dynamics have been studied in detail in metallic superconductors but remain relatively unexplored in semiconductor-superconductor structures, which are now being intensely pursued in the context of topological superconductivity. To this end, we introduce a new physical system comprised of a gate-confined semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer, yielding an isolated, proximitized nanowire segment. We identify Andreev-like bound states in the semiconductor via bias spectroscopy, determine the characteristic temperatures and magnetic fields for quasiparticle excitations, and extract a parity lifetime (poisoning time) of the bound state in the semiconductor exceeding 10 ms.
    • A. P. Higginbotham, S. M. Albrecht, G. Kirsanskas, W. Chang, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Physics 11, 1017 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys3461

  • 2014
    • Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface plays a key role for the quality of the induced superconducting gap. Here we present epitaxial growth of semiconductor-metal core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy, a method that provides a conceptually new route to controlled electrical contacting of nanostructures and for designing devices for specialized applications such as topological and gate-controlled superconducting electronics. Our materials of choice, InAs/Al, are grown with epitaxially matched single plane interfaces, and alternative semiconductor/metal combinations allowing epitaxial interface matching in nanowires are discussed. We formulate the grain growth kinetics of the metal phase in general terms of continuum parameters and bicrystal symmetries. The method realizes the ultimate limit of uniform interfaces and appears to solve the soft-gap problem in superconducting hybrid structures.
    • P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Nature Materials 14, 400 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nmat4176

  • 2013
    • Epitaxial aluminum contacts to InAs nanowires - Abstract
      • We report a method for making epitaxial superconducting contacts to semiconducting nanowires. The temperature and gate characteristics demonstrate barrier-free electrical contact, and the properties in the superconducting state are investigated at low temperature. Half-covering aluminum contacts are realized without the need of lithography and we demonstrate how to controllably insert high-band gap layers in the interface region. These developments are relevant to hybrid superconductor-nanowire devices that support Majorana zero energy states.
    • N. L. B. Ziino, P. Krogstrup, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. B. Wagner, C. M. Marcus, J. Nygård, T. S. Jespersen
      1309.4569v1 [pdf]

    • Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires - Abstract
      • Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of GaInAs were grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveal the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the GaInAs/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown GaInAs segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.
    • Sriram Venkatesan, Morten H. Madsen, Herbert Schmid, Peter Krogstrup, Erik Johnson, Christina Scheu
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 063106 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4818338

    • Advances in the theory of III–V nanowire growth dynamics - Abstract
      • Nanowire (NW) crystal growth via the vapour_liquid_solid mechanism is a complex dynamic process involving interactions between many atoms of various thermodynamic states. With increasing speed over the last few decades many works have reported on various aspects of the growth mechanisms, both experimentally and theoretically. We will here propose a general continuum formalism for growth kinetics based on thermodynamic parameters and transition state kinetics. We use the formalism together with key elements of recent research to present a more overall treatment of III_V NW growth, which can serve as a basis to model and understand the dynamical mechanisms in terms of the basic control parameters, temperature and pressures/beam fluxes. Self-catalysed GaAs NW growth on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is used as a model system.
    • Peter Krogstrup, Henrik I. Jørgensen, Erik Johnson, Morten Hannibal Madsen, Claus B. Sørensen, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Martin Aagesen, Jesper Nygård, Frank Glas
      Journal reference: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 (2013) 313001 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/46/31/313001

    • Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit - Abstract
      • Light management is of great importance to photovoltaic cells, as it determines the fraction of incident light entering the device. An optimal pn-junction combined with an optimal light absorption can lead to a solar cell efficiency above the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show how this is possible by studying photocurrent generation for a single core-shell p-i-n junction GaAs nanowire solar cell grown on a silicon substrate. At one sun illumination a short circuit current of 180 mA/cm^2 is obtained, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than what would be predicted from Lambert-Beer law. The enhanced light absorption is shown to be due to a light concentrating property of the standing nanowire as shown by photocurrent maps of the device. The results imply new limits for the maximum efficiency obtainable with III-V based nanowire solar cells under one sun illumination.
    • Peter Krogstrup, Henrik Ingerslev Jørgensen, Martin Heiss, Olivier Demichel, Jeppe V. Holm, Martin Aagesen, Jesper Nygard, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral
      Journal reference: Nature Photonics 7, 306-310 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.32

  • 2010
    • Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXVIII. BK Pegasi and other F-type binaries: Prospects for calibration of convective core overshoot - Abstract
      • We present a detailed study of the F-type detached eclipsing binary BK Peg, based on new photometric and spectroscopic observations. The two components, which have evolved to the upper half of the main-sequence band, are quite different with masses and radii of (1.414 +/- 0.007 Msun, 1.988 +/- 0.008 Rsun) and (1.257 +/- 0.005 Msun, 1.474 +/- 0.017 Rsun), respectively. The 5.49 day period orbit of BK Peg is slightly eccentric (e = 0.053). The measured rotational velocities are 16.6 +/- 0.2 (primary) and 13.4 +/- 0.2 (secondary) km/s. For the secondary component this corresponds to (pseudo)synchronous rotation, whereas the primary component seems to rotate at a slightly lower rate. We derive an iron abundance of [Fe/H] =-0.12 +/- 0.07 and similar abundances for Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr and Ni. Yonsei-Yale and Victoria-Regina evolutionary models for the observed metal abundance reproduce BK Peg at ages of 2.75 and 2.50 Gyr, respectively, but tend to predict a lower age for the more massive primary component than for the secondary. We find the same age trend for three other upper main-sequence systems in a sample of well studied eclipsing binaries with components in the 1.15-1.70 Msun range, where convective core overshoot is gradually ramped up in the models. We also find that the Yonsei-Yale models systematically predict higher ages than the Victoria-Regina models. The sample includes BW Aqr, and as a supplement we have determined a [Fe/H] abundance of -0.07 +/- 0.11 for this late F-type binary. We propose to use BK Peg, BW Aqr, and other well-studied 1.15-1.70 Msun eclipsing binaries to fine-tune convective core overshoot, diffusion, and possibly other ingredients of modern theoretical evolutionary models.
    • J. V. Clausen, S. Frandsen, H. Bruntt, E. H. Olsen, B. E. Helt, K. Gregersen, D. Juncher, P. Krogstrup
      DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014266
      1004.1903v1 [pdf]