Publications by Thomas Sand Jespersen

  • 2020
    • Shadow Epitaxy for In Situ Growth of Generic Semiconductor/Superconductor Hybrids - Abstract
      • Uniform, defect-free crystal interfaces and surfaces are crucial ingredients for realizing high-performance nanoscale devices. A pertinent example is that advances in gate-tunable and topological superconductivity using semiconductor/superconductor electronic devices are currently built on the hard proximity-induced superconducting gap obtained from epitaxial indium arsenide/aluminium heterostructures. Fabrication of devices requires selective etch processes; these exist only for InAs/Al hybrids, precluding the use of other, potentially superior material combinations. We present a crystal growth platform -- based on three-dimensional structuring of growth substrates -- which enables synthesis of semiconductor nanowire hybrids with in-situ patterned superconductor shells. This platform eliminates the need for etching, thereby enabling full freedom in choice of hybrid constituents. We realise and characterise all the most frequently used architectures in superconducting hybrid devices, finding increased yield and electrostatic stability compared to etched devices, along with evidence of ballistic superconductivity. In addition to aluminium, we present hybrid devices based on tantalum, niobium and vanadium. This is the submitted version of the manuscript. The accepted, peer reviewed version is available from Advanced Materials: Previous title: Shadow lithography for in-situ growth of generic semiconductor/superconductor devices
    • Damon J. Carrad, Martin Bjergfelt, Thomas Kanne, Martin Aagesen, Filip Krizek, Elisabetta M. Fiordaliso, Erik Johnson, Jesper Nygård, Thomas Sand Jespersen
      Journal reference: Advanced Materials (2020) 1908411 [ 1911.00460v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1002/adma.201908411

    • Transparent Gatable Superconducting Shadow Junctions - Abstract
      • Gate tunable junctions are key elements in quantum devices based on hybrid semiconductor-superconductor materials. They serve multiple purposes ranging from tunnel spectroscopy probes to voltage-controlled qubit operations in gatemon and topological qubits. Common to all is that junction transparency plays a critical role. In this study, we grow single crystalline InAs, InSb and $\mathrm{InAs_{1-x}Sb_x}$ nanowires with epitaxial superconductors and in-situ shadowed junctions in a single-step molecular beam epitaxy process. We investigate correlations between fabrication parameters, junction morphologies, and electronic transport properties of the junctions and show that the examined in-situ shadowed junctions are of significantly higher quality than the etched junctions. By varying the edge sharpness of the shadow junctions we show that the sharpest edges yield the highest junction transparency for all three examined semiconductors. Further, critical supercurrent measurements reveal an extraordinarily high $I_\mathrm{C} R_\mathrm{N}$, close to the KO$-$2 limit. This study demonstrates a promising engineering path towards reliable gate-tunable superconducting qubits.
    • Sabbir A. Khan, Charalampos Lampadaris, Ajuan Cui, Lukas Stampfer, Yu Liu, S. J. Pauka, Martin E. Cachaza, Elisabetta M. Fiordaliso, Jung-Hyun Kang, Svetlana Korneychuk, Timo Mutas, Joachim E. Sestoft, Filip Krizek, Rawa Tanta, M. C. Cassidy, Thomas S. Jespersen, Peter Krogstrup
      2003.04487v1 [pdf]

  • 2019
    • On the emergence of conductivity at SrTiO3-based oxide interfaces -- an in-situ study - Abstract
      • Heterostructures and crystal interfaces play a major role in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices and play a central role in the field of oxide electronics. In oxides the link between the microscopic properties of the interfaces and bulk properties of the resulting heterostructures challenge our fundamental understanding. Insights on the early growth stage of interfaces and its influence on resulting physical properties are scarce -- typically the information is inferred from post growth characterization. Here, we report on real time measurements of the transport properties of SrTiO3-based heterostructures while the crystal heterostructure is forming. Surprisingly, we detect a conducting interface already at the initial growth stage, much earlier than the well-established critical thickness limit for observing conductivity ex-situ after sample growth. We investigate how the conductivity depends on various physical processes occurring during pulsed laser depositions, including light illumination, particle bombardment by the plasma plume, interactions with the atmosphere and oxygen migration from SrTiO3 to the thin films of varying compositions. Using this approach, we propose a new design tool to control the electrical properties of interfaces in real time during their formation.
    • Merlin von Soosten, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Chang-Beom Eom, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Yunzhong Chen, Nini Pryds
      1908.09011v1 [pdf]

    • Diluted Oxide Interfaces with Tunable Ground States - Abstract
      • The metallic interface between two oxide insulators, such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO), provides new opportunities for electronics and spintronics. However, due to the presence of multiple orbital populations, tailoring the interfacial properties such as the ground state and metal-insulator transitions remains challenging. Here, we report an unforeseen tunability of the phase diagram of LAO/STO by alloying LAO with a ferromagnetic LaMnO3 insulator without forming lattice disorder and at the same time without changing the polarity of the system. By increasing the Mn-doping level, x, of LaAl1-xMnxO3/STO, the interface undergoes a Lifshitz transition at x = 0.225 across a critical carrier density of nc= 2.8E13 cm-2, where a peak TSC =255 mK of superconducting transition temperature is observed. Moreover, the LaAl1-xMnxO3 turns ferromagnetic at x >=0.25. Remarkably, at x = 0.3, where the metallic interface is populated by only dxy electrons and just before it becomes insulating, we achieve reproducibly a same device with both signatures of superconductivity and clear anomalous Hall effect. This provides a unique and effective way to tailor oxide interfaces for designing on-demand electronic and spintronic devices.
    • Yulin Gan, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Yu Zhang, Hongrui Zhang, Krishnan Dileep, Zhicheng Zhong, Wei Niu, Damon James Carrad, Kion Norrman, Merlin von Soosten, Thomas sand Jespersen, Baogen Shen, Nicolas Gauquelin, Johan Verbeeck, Jirong Sun, Nini Pryds, Yunzhong Chen
      Journal reference: Adv. Mater. 2019 [ 1901.04776v1 ]

  • 2018
    • Coupling of shells in a carbon nanotube quantum dot - Abstract
      • We systematically study the coupling of longitudinal modes (shells) in a carbon nanotube quantum dot. Inelastic cotunneling spectroscopy is used to probe the excitation spectrum in parallel, perpendicular and rotating magnetic fields. The data is compared to a theoretical model including coupling between shells, induced by atomically sharp disorder in the nanotube. The calculated excitation spectra show good correspondence with experimental data.
    • M. C. Hels, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, K. Grove-Rasmussen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 035422 (2019) [ 1809.07143v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.035422

  • 2017
    • Engineering hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires for stronger topological protection - Abstract
      • The combination of strong spin-orbit coupling, large $g$-factors, and the coupling to a superconductor can be used to create a topologically protected state in a semiconductor nanowire. Here we report on growth and characterization of hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires, with varying composition and crystal structure. We find the strongest spin-orbit interaction at intermediate compositions in zincblende InAs$_{1-x}$Sb$_{x}$ nanowires, exceeding that of both InAs and InSb materials, confirming recent theoretical studies \cite{winkler2016topological}. We show that the epitaxial InAsSb/Al interfaces allows for a hard induced superconducting gap and 2$e$ transport in Coulomb charging experiments, similar to experiments on InAs/Al and InSb/Al materials, and find measurements consistent with topological phase transitions at low magnetic fields due to large effective $g$-factors. Finally we present a method to grow pure wurtzite InAsSb nanowires which are predicted to exhibit even stronger spin-orbit coupling than the zincblende structure.
    • Joachim E. Sestoft, Thomas Kanne, Aske Nørskov Gejl, Merlin von Soosten, Jeremy S. Yodh, Daniel Sherman, Brian Tarasinski, Michael Wimmer, Erik Johnson, Mingtang Deng, Jesper Nygård, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Charles M. Marcus, Peter Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 044202 (2018) [ 1711.06864v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.044202

    • Evolution of Nanowire Transmon Qubits and Their Coherence in a Magnetic Field - Abstract
      • We present an experimental study of nanowire transmons at zero and applied in-plane magnetic field. With Josephson non-linearities provided by the nanowires, our qubits operate at higher magnetic fields than standard transmons. Nanowire transmons exhibit coherence up to 70 mT, where the induced superconducting gap in the nanowire closes. We demonstrate that on-chip charge noise coupling to the Josephson energy plays a dominant role in the qubit dephasing. This takes the form of strongly-coupled two-level systems switching on 100 ms timescales and a more weakly coupled background producing $1/f$ noise. Several observations, including the field dependence of qubit energy relaxation and dephasing, are not fully understood, inviting further experimental investigation and theory. Using nanowires with a thinner superconducting shell will enable operation of these circuits up to 0.5 T, a regime relevant for topological quantum computation.
    • F. Luthi, T. Stavenga, O. W. Enzing, A. Bruno, C. Dickel, N. K. Langford, M. A. Rol, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, P. Krogstrup, L. DiCarlo
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 100502 (2018) [ 1711.07961v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.100502

  • 2016
    • Transport Signatures of Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Majorana Island - Abstract
      • We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (~ 1 {\mu}s) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (> 10 {\mu}s). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. In energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.
    • S. M. Albrecht, E. B. Hansen, A. P. Higginbotham, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, J. Danon, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 137701 (2017) [ 1612.05748v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.137701

    • Quantization of Hall Resistance at the Metallic Interface between an Oxide Insulator and SrTiO$_{3}$ - Abstract
      • The two-dimensional metal forming at the interface between an oxide insulator and SrTiO3 provides new opportunities for oxide electronics. However, the quantum Hall effect, one of the most fascinating effects of electrons confined in two dimensions, remains underexplored at these complex oxide heterointerfaces. Here, we report the experimental observation of quantized Hall resistance in a SrTiO3 heterointerface based on the modulation-doped amorphous-LaAlO$_{3}$/SrTiO$_{3}$ heterostructure, which exhibits both high electron mobility exceeding 10000 cm$^{2}$/Vs and low carrier density on the order of ~10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$. Along with unambiguous Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, the spacing of the quantized Hall resistance suggests that the interface is comprised of a single quantum well with ten parallel conducting two-dimensional subbands. This provides new insight into the electronic structure of conducting oxide interfaces and represents an important step towards designing and understanding advanced oxide devices.
    • Felix Trier, Guenevere E. D. K. Prawiroatmodjo, Zhicheng Zhong, Merlin von Soosten, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Arghya Bhowmik, Juan Maria García Lastra, Yunzhong Chen, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Nini Pryds
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 096804 (2016) [ 1603.02850v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.096804

    • Evidence of weak superconductivity at the room-temperature grown LaAlO$_{3}$/SrTiO$_3$ interface - Abstract
      • The two-dimensional electron gas at the crystalline LaAlO$_{3}$/SrTiO$_{3}$ (c-LAO/STO) interface has sparked large interest due to its exotic properties including an intriguing gate-tunable superconducting phase. While there is growing evidence of pronounced spatial inhomogeneity in the conductivity at STO-based interfaces, the consequences for superconductivity remain largely unknown. We study interfaces based on amorphous LAO top layers grown at room temperature (a-LAO/STO) and demonstrate a superconducting phase similar to c-LAO/STO, however, with a gate-tunable critical temperature of $460 \, \mathrm{mK}$, higher than any previously reported values for c-LAO/STO. The dependence of the superconducting critical current on temperature, magnetic field and backgate-controlled doping is found to be consistently described by a model of a random array of Josephson-coupled superconducting domains.
    • Guenevere E. D. K. Prawiroatmodjo, Felix Trier, Dennis V. Christensen, Yunzhong Chen, Nini Pryds, Thomas S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 184504 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.184504

    • Milestones Toward Majorana-Based Quantum Computing - Abstract
      • We introduce a scheme for preparation, manipulation, and readout of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting wires with mesoscopic superconducting islands. Our approach synthesizes recent advances in materials growth with tools commonly used in quantum-dot experiments, including gate-control of tunnel barriers and Coulomb effects, charge sensing, and charge pumping. We outline a sequence of milestones interpolating between zero-mode detection and quantum computing that includes (1) detection of fusion rules for non-Abelian anyons using either proximal charge sensors or pumped current; (2) validation of a prototype topological qubit; and (3) demonstration of non-Abelian statistics by braiding in a branched geometry. The first two milestones require only a single wire with two islands, and additionally enable sensitive measurements of the system's excitation gap, quasiparticle poisoning rates, residual Majorana zero-mode splittings, and topological-qubit coherence times. These pre-braiding experiments can be adapted to other manipulation and readout schemes as well.
    • David Aasen, Michael Hell, Ryan V. Mishmash, Andrew Higginbotham, Jeroen Danon, Martin Leijnse, Thomas S. Jespersen, Joshua A. Folk, Charles M. Marcus, Karsten Flensberg, Jason Alicea
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. X 6, 031016 (2016) [ 1511.05153v2 ]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.031016

    • Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands - Abstract
      • Majorana zero modes are quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems that have been proposed as building blocks of fault-tolerant quantum computers [1]. They are expected to exhibit non-Abelian particle statistics, in contrast to the usual statistics of fermions and bosons, enabling quantum operations to be performed by braiding isolated modes around one another. Quantum braiding operations are topologically protected insofar as these modes are pinned near zero energy, and the pinning is predicted to be exponential as the modes become spatially separated. Following theoretical proposals, several experiments have identified signatures of Majorana modes in proximitized nanowires and atomic chains, with small mode-splitting potentially explained by hybridization of Majoranas. Here, we use Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy in an InAs nanowire segment with epitaxial aluminum, which forms a proximity-induced superconducting Coulomb island (a Majorana island) that is isolated from normal-metal leads by tunnel barriers, to measure the splitting of near-zero-energy Majorana modes. We observe exponential suppression of energy splitting with increasing wire length. For short devices of a few hundred nanometers, sub-gap state energies oscillate as the magnetic field is varied, as is expected for hybridized Majorana modes. Splitting decreases by a factor of about ten for each half micrometer of increased wire length. For devices longer than about one micrometer, transport in strong magnetic fields occurs through a zero-energy state that is energetically isolated from a continuum, yielding uniformly spaced Coulomb-blockade conductance peaks, consistent with teleportation via Majorana modes. Our results help explain the trivial-to-topological transition in finite systems and to quantify the scaling of topological protection with end-mode separation.
    • S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature 531, 206 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17162

    • Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation - Abstract
      • The thermal gradient along indium-arsenide nanowires was engineered by a combination of fabricated micro- trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.
    • R. Tanta, M. H. Madsen, Z. Liao, P. Krogstrup, T. Vosch, J. Nygard, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 243101 (2015) [ 1601.06583v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4937442

    • Patterning of high mobility electron gases at complex oxide interfaces - Abstract
      • Oxide interfaces provide an opportunity for electronics. However, patterning of electron gases at complex oxide interfaces is challenging. In particular, patterning of complex oxides while preserving a high electron mobility remains underexplored and inhibits the study of quantum mechanical effects where extended electron mean free paths are paramount. This letter presents an effective patterning strategy of both the amorphous-LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ (a-LAO/STO) and modulation-doped amorphous- LaAlO$_3$/La$_{7/8}$Sr$_{1/8}$MnO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ (a-LAO/LSM/STO) oxide interfaces. Our patterning is based on selective wet etching of amorphous-LSM (a-LSM) thin films which acts as a hard mask during subsequent depositions. Strikingly, the patterned modulation-doped interface shows electron mobilities up to ~8,700 cm$^2$/Vs at 2 K, which is among the highest reported values for patterned conducting complex oxide interfaces that usually are ~1,000 cm$^2$/Vs at 2 K.
    • Felix Trier, Guenevere E. D. K. Prawiroatmodjo, Merlin von Soosten, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Yunzhong Chen, Nini Pryds
      Journal reference: Applied Physics Letters 107, 191604 (2015) [ 1601.05571v1 ]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4935553

  • 2015
    • Extreme mobility enhancement of two-dimensional electron gases at oxide interfaces via charge transfer induced modulation doping - Abstract
      • The discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at the interface between two insulating complex oxides, such as LaAlO3 (LAO) or gamma-Al2O3 (GAO) epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (STO) 1,2, provides an opportunity for developing all-oxide electronic devices3,4. These 2DEGs at complex oxide interfaces involve many-body interactions and give rise to a rich set of phenomena5, for example, superconductivity6, magnetism7,8, tunable metal-insulator transitions9, and phase separation10. However, large enhancement of the interfacial electron mobility remains a major and long-standing challenge for fundamental as well as applied research of complex oxides11-15. Here, we inserted a single unit cell insulating layer of polar La1-xSrxMnO3 (x=0, 1/8, and 1/3) at the interface between disordered LaAlO3 and crystalline SrTiO3 created at room temperature. We find that the electron mobility of the interfacial 2DEG is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude. Our in-situ and resonant x-ray spectroscopic in addition to transmission electron microscopy results indicate that the manganite layer undergoes unambiguous electronic reconstruction and leads to modulation doping of such atomically engineered complex oxide heterointerfaces. At low temperatures, the modulation-doped 2DEG exhibits clear Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and the initial manifestation of the quantum Hall effect, demonstrating an unprecedented high-mobility and low electron density oxide 2DEG system. These findings open new avenues for oxide electronics.
    • Y. Z. Chen, F. Trier, T. Wijnands, R. J. Green, N. Gauquelin, R. Egoavil, D. V. Christensen, G. Koster, M. Huijben, N. Bovet, S. Macke, F. He, R. Sutarto, N. H. Andersen, G. E. D. K. Prawiroatmodjo, T. S. Jespersen, J. A. Sulpizio, M. Honig, S. Linderoth, S. Ilani, J. Verbeeck, G. Van Tendeloo, G. Rijnders, G. A. Sawatzky, N. Pryds
      1504.05986v1 [pdf]

    • Semiconductor-Nanowire-Based Superconducting Qubit - Abstract
      • We introduce a hybrid qubit based on a semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer. Josephson energy of the transmon-like device ("gatemon") is controlled by an electrostatic gate that depletes carriers in a semiconducting weak link region. Strong coupling to an on-chip microwave cavity and coherent qubit control via gate voltage pulses is demonstrated, yielding reasonably long relaxation times (0.8 {\mu}s) and dephasing times (1 {\mu}s), exceeding gate operation times by two orders of magnitude, in these first-generation devices. Because qubit control relies on voltages rather than fluxes, dissipation in resistive control lines is reduced, screening reduces crosstalk, and the absence of flux control allows operation in a magnetic field, relevant for topological quantum information.
    • T. W. Larsen, K. D. Petersson, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 127001 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.127001

    • Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Many present and future applications of superconductivity would benefit from electrostatic control of carrier density and tunneling rates, the hallmark of semiconductor devices. One particularly exciting application is the realization of topological superconductivity as a basis for quantum information processing. Proposals in this direction based on proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires are appealing because the key ingredients are currently in hand. However, previous instances of proximitized semiconductors show significant tunneling conductance below the superconducting gap, suggesting a continuum of subgap states---a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial Al-InAs superconductor-semiconductor nanowires. The hard gap, along with favorable material properties and gate-tunability, makes this new hybrid system attractive for a number of applications, as well as fundamental studies of mesoscopic superconductivity.
    • W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, T. S. Jespersen, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 10, 232 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.306

    • Parity lifetime of bound states in a proximitized semiconductor nanowire - Abstract
      • Quasiparticle excitations can compromise the performance of superconducting devices, causing high frequency dissipation, decoherence in Josephson qubits, and braiding errors in proposed Majorana-based topological quantum computers. Quasiparticle dynamics have been studied in detail in metallic superconductors but remain relatively unexplored in semiconductor-superconductor structures, which are now being intensely pursued in the context of topological superconductivity. To this end, we introduce a new physical system comprised of a gate-confined semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer, yielding an isolated, proximitized nanowire segment. We identify Andreev-like bound states in the semiconductor via bias spectroscopy, determine the characteristic temperatures and magnetic fields for quasiparticle excitations, and extract a parity lifetime (poisoning time) of the bound state in the semiconductor exceeding 10 ms.
    • A. P. Higginbotham, S. M. Albrecht, G. Kirsanskas, W. Chang, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Physics 11, 1017 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys3461

  • 2014
    • Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface plays a key role for the quality of the induced superconducting gap. Here we present epitaxial growth of semiconductor-metal core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy, a method that provides a conceptually new route to controlled electrical contacting of nanostructures and for designing devices for specialized applications such as topological and gate-controlled superconducting electronics. Our materials of choice, InAs/Al, are grown with epitaxially matched single plane interfaces, and alternative semiconductor/metal combinations allowing epitaxial interface matching in nanowires are discussed. We formulate the grain growth kinetics of the metal phase in general terms of continuum parameters and bicrystal symmetries. The method realizes the ultimate limit of uniform interfaces and appears to solve the soft-gap problem in superconducting hybrid structures.
    • P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Nature Materials 14, 400 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nmat4176

  • 2013
    • Epitaxial aluminum contacts to InAs nanowires - Abstract
      • We report a method for making epitaxial superconducting contacts to semiconducting nanowires. The temperature and gate characteristics demonstrate barrier-free electrical contact, and the properties in the superconducting state are investigated at low temperature. Half-covering aluminum contacts are realized without the need of lithography and we demonstrate how to controllably insert high-band gap layers in the interface region. These developments are relevant to hybrid superconductor-nanowire devices that support Majorana zero energy states.
    • N. L. B. Ziino, P. Krogstrup, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. B. Wagner, C. M. Marcus, J. Nygård, T. S. Jespersen
      1309.4569v1 [pdf]

    • A high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas at the spinel/perovskite interface of γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 - Abstract
      • The discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at the heterointerface between two insulating perovskite-type oxides, such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, provides opportunities for a new generation of all-oxide electronic and photonic devices. However, significant improvement of the interfacial electron mobility beyond the current value of approximately 1,000 cm2V-1s-1 (at low temperatures), remains a key challenge for fundamental as well as applied research of complex oxides. Here, we present a new type of 2DEG created at the heterointerface between SrTiO3 and a spinel {\gamma}-Al2O3 epitaxial film with excellent quality and compatible oxygen ions sublattices. This spinel/perovskite oxide heterointerface exhibits electron mobilities more than one order of magnitude higher than those of perovskite/perovskite oxide interfaces, and demonstrates unambiguous two-dimensional conduction character as revealed by the observation of quantum magnetoresistance oscillations. Furthermore, we find that the spinel/perovskite 2DEG results from interface-stabilized oxygen vacancies and is confined within a layer of 0.9 nm in proximity to the heterointerface. Our findings pave the way for studies of mesoscopic physics with complex oxides and design of high-mobility all-oxide electronic devices.
    • Y. Z. Chen, N. Bovet, F. Trier, D. V. Christensen, F. M. Qu, N. H. Andersen, T. Kasama, W. Zhang, R. Giraud, J. Dufouleur, T. S. Jespersen, J. R. Sun, A. Smith, J. Nygård, L. Lu, B. Büchner, B. G. Shen, S. Linderoth, N. Pryds
      Journal reference: Nature Communications, Nat Commun. 2013;4:1371 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2394

  • 2012
    • Tunneling Spectroscopy of Quasiparticle Bound States in a Spinful Josephson Junction - Abstract
      • The spectrum of a segment of InAs nanowire, confined between two superconducting leads, was measured as function of gate voltage and superconducting phase difference using a third normal-metal tunnel probe. Sub-gap resonances for odd electron occupancy---interpreted as bound states involving a confined electron and a quasiparticle from the superconducting leads, reminiscent of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states---evolve into Kondo-related resonances at higher magnetic fields. An additional zero bias peak of unknown origin is observed to coexist with the quasiparticle bound states.
    • W. Chang, V. E. Manucharyan, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 217005 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.217005

  • 2010
    • Gate-dependent spin-orbit coupling in multi-electron carbon nanotubes - Abstract
      • Understanding how the orbital motion of electrons is coupled to the spin degree of freedom in nanoscale systems is central for applications in spin-based electronics and quantum computation. We demonstrate this coupling of spin and orbit in a carbon nanotube quantum dot in the general multi-electron regime in presence of finite disorder. Further, we find a strong systematic dependence of the spin-orbit coupling on the electron occupation of the quantum dot. This dependence, which even includes a sign change is not demonstrated in any other system and follows from the curvature-induced spin-orbit split Dirac-spectrum of the underlying graphene lattice. Our findings unambiguously show that the spin-orbit coupling is a general property of nanotube quantum dots which provide a unique platform for the study of spin-orbit effects and their applications.
    • Thomas Sand Jespersen, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jens Paaske, Koji Muraki, Toshimasa Fujisawa, Jesper Nygård, Karsten Flensberg
      1008.1600v2 [pdf]

  • 2009
    • Mesoscopic conductance fluctuations in InAs nanowire-based SNS junctions - Abstract
      • We report a systematic experimental study of mesoscopic conductance fluctuations in superconductor/normal/superconductor (SNS) devices Nb/InAs-nanowire/Nb. These fluctuations far exceed their value in the normal state and strongly depend on temperature even in the low-temperature regime. This dependence is attributed to high sensitivity of perfectly conducting channels to dephasing and the SNS fluctuations thus provide a sensitive probe of dephasing in a regime where normal transport fails to detect it. Further, the conductance fluctuations are strongly non-linear in bias voltage and reveal sub-gap structure. The experimental findings are qualitatively explained in terms of multiple Andreev reflections in chaotic quantum dots with imperfect contacts.
    • T. S. Jespersen, M. L. Polianski, C. B. Soerensen, K. Flensberg, J. Nygaard
      Journal reference: New J. Phys. 11, 113025 (2009) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/11/11/113025

    • Superconductivity-enhanced bias spectroscopy in carbon nanotube quantum dots - Abstract
      • We study low-temperature transport through carbon nanotube quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime coupled to niobium-based superconducting leads. We observe pronounced conductance peaks at finite source-drain bias, which we ascribe to elastic and inelastic cotunneling processes enhanced by the coherence peaks in the density of states of the superconducting leads. The inelastic cotunneling lines display a marked dependence on the applied gate voltage which we relate to different tunneling-renormalizations of the two subbands in the nanotube. Finally, we discuss the origin of an especially pronounced sub-gap structure observed in every fourth Coulomb diamond.
    • K. Grove-Rasmussen, H. I. Jørgensen, B. M. Andersen, J. Paaske, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, K. Flensberg, P. E. Lindelof
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 79, 134518 (2009) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.134518

    • Nonequilibrium cotunneling through a three-level quantum dot - Abstract
      • We calculate the nonlinear cotunneling conductance through a quantum dot with 3 electrons occupying the three highest lying energy levels. Starting from a 3-orbital Anderson model, we apply a generalized Schrieffer-Wolff transformation to derive an effective Kondo model for the system. Within this model we calculate the nonequilibrium occupation numbers and the corresponding cotunneling current to leading order in the exchange couplings. We identify the inelastic cotunneling thresholds and their splittings with applied magnetic field, and make a qualitative comparison to recent experimental data on carbon nanotube and InAs quantum-wire quantum dots. Further predictions of the model like cascade resonances and a magnetic-field dependence of the orbital level splitting are not yet observed but within reach of recent experimental work on carbon nanotube and InAs nanowire quantum dots.
    • S. Schmaus, V. Koerting, J. Paaske, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Wölfle
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 79, 045105 (2009) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.045105

  • 2008
    • Giant fluctuations and gate control of the g-factor in InAs Nanowire Quantum Dots - Abstract
      • We study the g-factor of discrete electron states in InAs nanowire based quantum dots. The g values are determined from the magnetic field splitting of the zero bias anomaly due to the spin 1/2-Kondo effect. Unlike to previous studies based on 2DEG quantum dots, the g-factors of neighboring electron states show a surprisingly large fluctuation: g can scatter between 2 and 18. Furthermore electric gate tunability of the g-factor is demonstrated.
    • S. Csonka, L. Hofstetter, F. Freitag, S. Oberholzer, T. S. Jespersen, M. Aagesen, J. Nygard, C. Schonenberger
      DOI: 10.1021/nl802418w
      0808.1492v2 [pdf]

  • 2006
    • Kondo physics in tunable semiconductor nanowire quantum dots - Abstract
      • We have observed the Kondo effect in strongly coupled semiconducting nanowire quantum dots. The devices are made from indium arsenide nanowires, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and contacted by titanium leads. The device transparency can be tuned by changing the potential on a gate electrode, and for increasing transparencies the effects dominating the transport changes from Coulomb Blockade to Universal Conductance Fluctuations with Kondo physics appearing in the intermediate region.
    • T. S. Jespersen, M. Aagesen, C. Soerensen, P. E. Lindelof, J. Nygaard
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.74.233304
      cond-mat/0608478v1 [pdf]