Publications by Peter Krogstrup

  • 2021
    • Coulombic subgap states - Abstract
      • Energy gaps are ubiquitous in the solid state. While in superconductors the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap comes from Cooper pairing mediated by the crystal lattice, in Mott insulators the Coulomb gap results instead from electron-electron interactions. These gaps can be populated by subgap states due to various mechanisms. Here we demonstrate the existence of \textit{Coulombic} states, a new type of subgap states arising in a device with an energy gap opened by both Cooper pairing and Coulomb repulsion. The hybrid gap is provided by a superconducting island in Coulomb blockade, while the states arise due to electron transfer between the island and a nearby quantum dot. The Coulomb interaction in the device produces an unusual excitation spectrum exhibiting broken electron-hole energy symmetry, discontinuity of spectral curves, strongly renormalized g-factors and high-degeneracy points. The repercussions of the new states for the search of Majorana states in topological superconducting islands are elucidated.
    • 2101.10794v2 [pdf]
      Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Alexandros Vekris, Luka Pavešič, Peter Krogstrup, Rok Žitko, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård
      [pdf]

    • Comparing tunneling spectroscopy and charge sensing of Andreev bound states in a semiconductor-superconductor hybrid nanowire structure - Abstract
      • Transport studies of Andreev bound states (ABSs) are complicated by the interplay of charging effects and superconductivity. Here, we compare transport approaches to ABS spectroscopy in a semiconductor-superconductor island to a charge-sensing approach based on an integrated radio-frequency single-electron transistor. Consistency of the methods demonstrates that fast, non-invasive charge sensing allows accurate quantitative measurement of ABSs while eluding some complexities of transport.
    • 2105.08871v1 [pdf]
      Deividas Sabonis, David van Zanten, Judith Suter, Torsten Karzig, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Jukka I. Väyrynen, Eoin O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      [pdf]

    • Direct Transport between Superconducting Subgap States in a Double Quantum Dot - Abstract
      • We demonstrate direct transport between two opposing sets of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) subgap states realized in a double quantum dot. This sub-gap transport relies on intrinsic quasiparticle relaxation, but the tunability of the device allows us to explore also an additional relaxation mechanism based on charge transferring Andreev reflections. The transition between these two relaxation regimes is identified in the experiment as a marked gate-induced stepwise change in conductance. We present a transport calculation, including YSR bound states and multiple Andreev reflections alongside with quasiparticle relaxation, due to a weak tunnel coupling to a nearby normal metal, and obtain excellent agreement with the data.
    • 2105.06815v1 [pdf]
      Gorm Ole Steffensen, Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Alexandros Vekris, Peter Krogstrup, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård, Alfredo Levy Yeyati, Jens Paaske
      [pdf]

    • Spin-polarized bound states in semiconductor-superconductor-ferromagnetic insulator islands - Abstract
      • We report Coulomb blockade transport studies of InAs nanowires grown with epitaxial superconducting Al and ferromagnetic insulator EuS on overlapping facets. By comparing experimental results to a theoretical model, we associate cotunneling features in even-odd bias spectra with spin-polarized Andreev levels, indicating that spin splitting exceeding the induced superconducting gap at zero applied magnetic field. Energies of the polarized subgap states can be tuned on either side of zero by electrostatic gates.
    • 2104.01463v1 [pdf]
      S. Vaitiekėnas, R. Seoane Souto, Y. Liu, P. Krogstrup, K. Flensberg, M. Leijnse, C. M. Marcus
      [pdf]

    • Andreev interference in the surface accumulation layer of half-shell InAsSb/Al hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • Understanding the spatial distribution of charge carriers in III-V nanowires proximity coupled to superconductors is important for the design and interpretation of experiments based on hybrid quantum devices. In this letter, the gate-dependent surface accumulation layer of InAsSb/Al nanowires was studied by means of Andreev interference in a parallel magnetic field. Both uniform hybrid nanowires and devices featuring a short Josephson junction fabricated by shadow lithography, exhibited periodic modulation of the switching current. The period corresponds to a flux quantum through the nanowire diameter and is consistent with Andreev bound states occupying a cylindrical surface accumulation layer. The spatial distribution was tunable by a gate potential as expected from electrostatic models.
    • 2104.00723v1 [pdf]
      Lukas Stampfer, Damon J. Carrad, Dags Olsteins, Christian E. N. Petersen, Sabbir A. Khan, Peter Krogstrup, Thomas S. Jespersen
      [pdf]

    • The role of growth temperature on the electron mobility of InAs/In$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As selective area grown nanowires - Abstract
      • Semiconductor nanowire networks are essential elements for a variety of gate-tunable quantum applications. Their relevance, however, depends critically on the material quality. In this work we study selective area growth (SAG) of highly lattice-mismatched InAs/In$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As nanowires on insulating GaAs(001) substrates and address two key challenges: crystalline quality and compositional uniformity. We introduce optimization steps and show how misfit dislocations are guided away from the InAs active region and how Ga-In intermixing is kinetically limited with growth temperature. The optimization process leads to a more than twofold increase in electron mobility and shows an advancement toward realizing high quality gatable quantum wire networks.
    • 2103.15971v1 [pdf]
      Daria V. Beznasyuk, Sara Martí-Sánchez, Jung-Hyun Kang, Rawa Tanta, Mohana Rajpalke, Tomaš Stankevič, Anna Wulff Christensen, Maria Chiara Spadaro, Roberto Bergamaschini, Jordi Arbiol, Peter Krogstrup
      [pdf]

    • Magnetic-Field-Compatible Superconducting Transmon Qubit - Abstract
      • We present a hybrid semiconductor-based superconducting qubit device which remains coherent at magnetic fields up to 1 T. The qubit transition frequency exhibits periodic oscillations with magnetic field, consistent with interference effects due to the magnetic flux threading the cross section of the proximitized semiconductor nanowire junction. As induced superconductivity revives, additional coherent modes emerge at high magnetic fields, which we attribute to the interaction of the qubit and low-energy Andreev states.
    • A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, O. Erlandsson, W. Uilhoorn, J. G. Kroll, M. Hesselberg, R. P. G. McNeil, P. Krogstrup, L. Casparis, C. M. Marcus, K. D. Petersson
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 15, 054001 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.15.054001

    • Andreev Modes from Phase Winding in a Full-Shell Nanowire-Based Transmon - Abstract
      • We investigate transmon qubits made from semiconductor nanowires with a fully surrounding superconducting shell. In the regime of reentrant superconductivity associated with the destructive Little-Parks effect, numerous coherent transitions are observed in the first reentrant lobe, where the shell carries 2{\pi} winding of superconducting phase, and are absent in the zeroth lobe. As junction density was increased by gate voltage, qubit coherence was suppressed then lost in the first lobe. These observations and numerical simulations highlight the role of winding-induced Andreev states in the junction.
    • A. Kringhøj, G. W. Winkler, T. W. Larsen, D. Sabonis, O. Erlandsson, P. Krogstrup, B. van Heck, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 047701 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.047701

  • 2020
    • Two-impurity Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in coupled quantum dots - Abstract
      • Using double quantum dots as the weak link of a Josephson junction, we realize the superconducting analog of the celebrated two-impurity Kondo model. The device shows a cusped current-voltage characteristic, which can be modelled by an overdamped circuit relating the observed cusp current to the Josephson critical current. The gate dependence of the cusp current and of the subgap spectra are used as complementary ground-state indicators to demonstrate gate-tuned changes of the ground state from an inter-dot singlet to independently screened Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) singlets. In contrast to the two-impurity Kondo effect in normal-state systems, the crossover between these two singlets is heralded by quantum phase boundaries to nearby doublet YSR phases in which only a single spin is screened.
    • J. C. Estrada Saldaña, A. Vekris, R. Žitko, G. Steffensen, P. Krogstrup, J. Paaske, K. Grove-Rasmussen, J. Nygård
      Journal reference: Physical Review B 102, 195143 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.195143

    • Parity-Protected Superconductor-Semiconductor Qubit - Abstract
      • Coherence of superconducting qubits can be improved by implementing designs that protect the parity of Cooper pairs on superconducting islands. Here, we introduce a parity-protected qubit based on voltage-controlled semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions, taking advantage of the higher harmonic content in the energy-phase relation of few-channel junctions. A symmetric interferometer formed by two such junctions, gate-tuned into balance and frustrated by a half-quantum of applied flux, yields a cos(2{\phi}) Josephson element, reflecting coherent transport of pairs of Cooper pairs. We demonstrate that relaxation of the qubit can be suppressed tenfold by tuning into the protected regime.
    • T. W. Larsen, M. E. Gershenson, L. Casparis, A. Kringhøj, N. J. Pearson, R. P. G. McNeil, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 056801 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.056801

    • Quantum Dot Parity Effects in Trivial and Topological Josephson Junctions - Abstract
      • An odd-occupied quantum dot in a Josephson junction can flip transmission phase, creating a {\pi}-junction. When the junction couples topological superconductors, no phase flip is expected. We investigate this and related effects in a full-shell hybrid interferometer, using gate voltage to control dot-junction parity and axial magnetic flux to control the transition from trivial to topological superconductivity. Enhanced zero-bias conductance and critical current for odd parity in the topological phase reflects hybridization of the confined spin with zero-energy modes in the leads.
    • D. Razmadze, E. C. T. O'Farrell, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 116803 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.116803

    • Destructive Little-Parks Effect in a Full-Shell Nanowire-Based Transmon - Abstract
      • A semiconductor transmon with an epitaxial Al shell fully surrounding an InAs nanowire core is investigated in the low $E_J/E_C$ regime. Little-Parks oscillations as a function of flux along the hybrid wire axis are destructive, creating lobes of reentrant superconductivity separated by a metallic state at a half-quantum of applied flux. In the first lobe, phase winding around the shell can induce topological superconductivity in the core. Coherent qubit operation is observed in both the zeroth and first lobes. Splitting of parity bands by coherent single-electron coupling across the junction is not resolved beyond line broadening, placing a bound on Majorana coupling, $E_M/h$ < 10 MHz, much smaller than the Josephson coupling $E_J/h$ ~ 4.7 GHz.
    • Deividas Sabonis, Oscar Erlandsson, Anders Kringhøj, Bernard van Heck, Thorvald W. Larsen, Ivana Petkovic, Peter Krogstrup, Karl D. Petersson, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 156804 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.156804

    • Zero-bias peaks at zero magnetic field in ferromagnetic hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • We report transport measurements and tunneling spectroscopy in hybrid nanowires with epitaxial layers of superconducting Al and the ferromagnetic insulator EuS, grown on semiconducting InAs nanowires. In devices where the Al and EuS covered facets overlap, we infer a remanent effective Zeeman field of order 1 T, and observe stable zero-bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectroscopy into the end of the nanowire, consistent with topological superconductivity at zero applied field. Hysteretic features in critical current and tunneling spectra as a function of applied magnetic field support this picture. Nanowires with non-overlapping Al and EuS covered facets do not show comparable features. Topological superconductivity in zero applied field allows new device geometries and types of control.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, Y. Liu, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-1017-3
      2004.02226v1 [pdf]

    • Anomalous metallic phase in tunable destructive superconductors - Abstract
      • Multiply connected superconductors smaller than the coherence length show destructive superconductivity, characterized by reentrant quantum phase transitions driven by magnetic flux. We investigate the dependence of destructive superconductivity on flux, transverse magnetic field, temperature, and current in InAs nanowires with a surrounding epitaxial Al shell, finding excellent agreement with mean-field theory across multiple reentrant transitions. Near the crossover between destructive and nondestructive regimes, an anomalous metal phase is observed with temperature-independent resistance, controlled over two orders of magnitude by a millitesla-scale transverse magnetic field.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 101, 060507 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.060507

    • Temperature induced shifts of Yu–Shiba–Rusinov resonances in nanowire-based hybrid quantum dots - Abstract
      • The strong coupling of a superconductor to a spinful quantum dot results in Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) discrete subgap excitations. In isolation and at zero temperature, the excitations are $\delta$ resonances. In transport experiments, however, they show as broad differential conductance peaks. We obtain the lineshape of the peaks and their temperature dependence in superconductor-quantum-dot-metal (S-QD-N) nanowire-based devices. Unexpectedly, we find that the peaks shift in energy with temperature, with the shift magnitude and sign depending on ground state parity and bias voltage. Additionally, we empirically find a power-law scaling of the peak area versus temperature. These observations are not explained by current models.
    • Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Alexandros Vekris, Victoria Sosnovtseva, Thomas Kanne, Peter Krogstrup, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård
      Journal reference: Commun Phys 3, 125 (2020) https://rdcu.be/b5ymM [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s42005-020-0392-5

    • Suppressed Charge Dispersion via Resonant Tunneling in a Single-Channel Transmon - Abstract
      • We demonstrate strong suppression of charge dispersion in a semiconductor-based transmon qubit across Josephson resonances associated with a quantum dot in the junction. On resonance, dispersion is drastically reduced compared to conventional transmons with corresponding Josephson and charging energies. We develop a model of qubit dispersion for a single-channel resonance, which is in quantitative agreement with experimental data.
    • A. Kringhøj, B. van Heck, T. W. Larsen, O. Erlandsson, D. Sabonis, P. Krogstrup, L. Casparis, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 246803 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.246803

    • Controlled dc Monitoring of a Superconducting Qubit - Abstract
      • Creating a transmon qubit using semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials not only provides electrostatic control of the qubit frequency, it also allows parts of the circuit to be electrically connected and disconnected in situ by operating a semiconductor region of the device as a field-effect transistor (FET). Here, we exploit this feature to compare in the same device characteristics of the qubit, such as frequency and relaxation time, with related transport properties such as critical supercurrent and normal-state resistance. Gradually opening the FET to the monitoring circuit allows the influence of weak-to-strong DC monitoring of a live qubit to be measured. A model of this influence yields excellent agreement with experiment, demonstrating a relaxation rate mediated by a gate-controlled environmental coupling.
    • A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, B. van Heck, D. Sabonis, O. Erlandsson, I. Petkovic, D. I. Pikulin, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 056801 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.056801

    • Photon-assisted tunnelling of zero modes in a Majorana wire - Abstract
      • Hybrid nanowires with proximity-induced superconductivity in the topological regime host Majorana zero modes (MZMs) at their ends, and networks of such structures can produce topologically protected qubits. In a double-island geometry where each segment hosts a pair of MZMs, inter-pair coupling mixes the charge parity of the islands and opens an energy gap between the even and odd charge states at the inter-island charge degeneracy. Here, we report on the spectroscopic measurement of such an energy gap in an InAs/Al double-island device by tracking the position of the microwave-induced quasiparticle (qp) transitions using a radio-frequency (rf) charge sensor. In zero magnetic field, photon assisted tunneling (PAT) of Cooper pairs gives rise to resonant lines in the 2e-2e periodic charge stability diagram. In the presence of a magnetic field aligned along the nanowire, resonance lines are observed parallel to the inter-island charge degeneracy of the 1e-1e periodic charge stability diagram, where the 1e periodicity results from a zero-energy sub-gap state that emerges in magnetic field. Resonant lines in the charge stability diagram indicate coherent photon assisted tunneling of single-electron states, changing the parity of the two islands. The dependence of resonant frequency on detuning indicates a sizable (GHz-scale) hybridization of zero modes across the junction separating islands.
    • David M. T. van Zanten, Deividas Sabonis, Judith Suter, Jukka I. Väyrynen, Torsten Karzig, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, Karl D. Petersson, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Physics (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-0858-0

    • Flux-induced topological superconductivity in full-shell nanowires - Abstract
      • We demonstrate a novel means of creating Majorana zero modes using magnetic flux applied to a full superconducting shell surrounding a semiconducting nanowire core, unifying approaches based on proximitized nanowires and vortices in topological superconductors. In the destructive Little-Parks regime, reentrant regions of superconductivity are associated with integer number of phase windings in the shell. Tunneling into the core reveals a hard induced gap near zero applied flux, corresponding to zero phase winding, and a gapped region with a discrete zero-energy state for flux around {\Phi}_0 = h/2e, corresponding to 2{\pi} phase winding. Coulomb peak spacing in full-shell islands around one applied flux shows exponentially decreasing deviation from 1e periodicity with device length, consistent with the picture of Majorana modes located at the ends of the wire.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, M. -T. Deng, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Science 367, eaav3392 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav3392

  • 2019
    • Semiconductor–Ferromagnetic Insulator–Superconductor Nanowires: Stray Field and Exchange Field - Abstract
      • Nanowires can serve as flexible substrates for hybrid epitaxial growth on selected facets, allowing for design of heterostructures with complex material combinations and geometries. In this work we report on hybrid epitaxy of semiconductor - ferromagnetic insulator - superconductor (InAs/EuS/Al) nanowire heterostructures. We study the crystal growth and complex epitaxial matching of wurtzite InAs / rock-salt EuS interfaces as well as rock-salt EuS / face-centered cubic Al interfaces. Because of the magnetic anisotropy originating from the nanowire shape, the magnetic structure of the EuS phase are easily tuned into single magnetic domains. This effect efficiently ejects the stray field lines along the nanowires. With tunnel spectroscopy measurements of the density of states, we show the material has a hard induced superconducting gap, and magnetic hysteretic evolution which indicates that the magnetic exchange fields are not negligible. These hybrid nanowires fulfil key material requirements for serving as a platform for spin-based quantum applications, such as scalable topological quantum computing.
    • Yu Liu, Saulius Vaitiekenas, Sara Marti-Sanchez, Christian Koch, Sean Hart, Zheng Cui, Thomas Kanne, Sabbir A. Khan, Rawa Tanta, Shivendra Upadhyay, Martin Espineira Cachaza, Charles M. Marcus, Jordi Arbiol, Kathryn A. Moler, Peter Krogstrup
      [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b04187
      1910.03364v1 [pdf]

    • Band bending profile and band offset extraction at semiconductor-metal interfaces - Abstract
      • The band alignment of semiconductor-metal interfaces plays a vital role in modern electronics, but remains difficult to predict theoretically and measure experimentally. For interfaces with strong band bending a main difficulty originates from the in-built potentials which lead to broadened and shifted band spectra in spectroscopy measurements. In this work we present a method to resolve the band alignment of buried semiconductor-metal interfaces using core level photoemission spectroscopy and self-consistent electronic structure simulations. As a proof of principle we apply the method to a clean in-situ grown InAs(100)/Al interface, a system with a strong in-built band bending. Due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the core level spectra the proposed methodology can be used on previously inaccessible semiconductor-metal interfaces and support targeted design of novel hybrid devices and form the foundation for a interface parameter database for specified synthesis processes of semiconductor-metal systems.
    • 1910.02735v1 [pdf]
      Sergej Schuwalow, Niels B. M. Schroeter, Jan Gukelberger, Candice Thomas, Vladimir Strocov, John Gamble, Alla Chikina, Marco Caputo, Jonas Krieger, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Matthias Troyer, Gabriel Aeppli, Michael J. Manfra, Peter Krogstrup
      [pdf]

    • Dispersive sensing in hybrid InAs/Al nanowires - Abstract
      • Dispersive charge sensing is realized in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowires in gate-defined single- and double-island device geometries. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured both in the frequency and time domain. Frequency-domain measurements were carried out as a function of frequency and power and yield a charge sensitivity of $1 \times 10^{-3} e/\sqrt{\rm Hz}$ for an 11 MHz measurement bandwidth. Time-domain measurements yield SNR > 1 for 20 $\mu$s integration time. At zero magnetic field, photon-assisted tunneling was detected dispersively in a double-island geometry, indicating coherent hybridization of the two superconducting islands. At an axial magnetic field of 0.6 T, subgap states are detected dispersively, demonstrating the suitability of the method for sensing in the topological regime.
    • Deividas Sabonis, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, David M. T. van Zanten, Judith Suter, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 102601 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5116377

    • Suppressing quasiparticle poisoning with a voltage-controlled filter - Abstract
      • We study single-electron charging events in an Al/InAs nanowire hybrid system with deliberately introduced gapless regions. The occupancy of a Coulomb island is detected using a nearby radio-frequency quantum dot as a charge sensor. We demonstrate that a 1 micron gapped segment of the wire can be used to efficiently suppress single electron poisoning of the gapless region and therefore protect the parity of the island while maintaining good electrical contact with a normal lead. In the absence of protection by charging energy, the 1e switching rate can be reduced below 200 per second. In the same configuration, we observe strong quantum charge fluctuations due to exchange of electron pairs between the island and the lead. The magnetic field dependence of the poisoning rate yields a zero-field superconducting coherence length of ~ 90 nm.
    • Gerbold C. Ménard, Filip K. Malinowski, Denise Puglia, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Torsten Karzig, Bela Bauer, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 165307 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.165307

    • Radio-Frequency Methods for Majorana-Based Quantum Devices: Fast Charge Sensing and Phase-Diagram Mapping - Abstract
      • Radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry is implemented in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowire systems designed to probe Majorana zero modes. Two approaches are presented. In the first, hybrid nanowire-based devices are part of a resonant circuit, allowing conductance to be measured as a function of several gate voltages ~40 times faster than using conventional low-frequency lock-in methods. In the second, nanowire devices are capacitively coupled to a nearby RF single-electron transistor made from a separate nanowire, allowing RF detection of charge, including charge-only measurement of the crossover from 2e inter-island charge transitions at zero magnetic field to 1e transitions at axial magnetic fields above 0.6 T, where a topological state is expected. Single-electron sensing yields signal-to-noise exceeding 3 and visibility 99.8% for a measurement time of 1 {\mu}s.
    • Davydas Razmadze, Deividas Sabonis, Filip K. Malinowski, Gerbold C. Menard, Sebastian Pauka, Hung Nguyen, David M. T. van Zanten, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Judith Suter, Peter Krogstrup, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 11, 064011 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064011

    • Voltage-controlled superconducting quantum bus - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the ability of an epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowire to serve as a field-effect switch to tune a superconducting cavity. Two superconducting gatemon qubits are coupled to the cavity, which acts as a quantum bus. Using a gate voltage to control the superconducting switch yields up to a factor of 8 change in qubit-qubit coupling between the on and off states without detrimental effect on qubit coherence. High-bandwidth operation of the coupling switch on nanosecond timescales degrades qubit coherence.
    • L. Casparis, N. J. Pearson, A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, F. Kuemmeth, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 085434 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.085434

  • 2018
    • Supercurrent in a Double Quantum Dot - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the Josephson effect in a serial double quantum dot defined in a nanowire with epitaxial superconducting leads. The supercurrent stability diagram adopts a honeycomb pattern with electron-hole and left-right reflection symmetry. We observe sharp discontinuities in the magnitude of the critical current, $I_c$, as a function of dot occupation, related to doublet to singlet ground state transitions. Detuning of the energy levels offers a tuning knob for $I_c$, which attains a maximum at zero detuning. The consistency between experiment and theory indicates that our device is a faithful realization of the two-impurity Anderson model.
    • J. C. Estrada Saldaña, A. Vekris, G. Steffensen, R. Žitko, P. Krogstrup, J. Paaske, K. Grove-Rasmussen, J. Nygård
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 257701 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.257701

    • Nonlocality of Majorana modes in hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • Spatial separation of Majorana zero modes distinguishes trivial from topological midgap states and is key to topological protection in quantum computing applications. Although signatures of Majorana zero modes in tunneling spectroscopy have been reported in numerous studies, a quantitative measure of the degree of separation, or nonlocality, of the emergent zero modes has not been reported. Here, we present results of an experimental study of nonlocality of emergent zero modes in superconductor-semiconductor hybrid nanowire devices. The approach takes advantage of recent theory showing that nonlocality can be measured from splitting due to hybridization of the zero mode in resonance with a quantum dot state at one end of the nanowire. From these splittings as well as anticrossing of the dot states, measured for even and odd occupied quantum dot states, we extract both the degree of nonlocality of the emergent zero mode, as well as the spin canting angles of the nonlocal zero mode. Depending on the device measured, we obtain either a moderate degree of nonlocality, suggesting a partially separated Andreev subgap state, or a highly nonlocal state consistent with a well-developed Majorana mode.
    • M. T. Deng, S. Vaitiekénas, E. Prada, P. San-Jose, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, R. Aguado, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 98, 085125 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.98.085125

    • Effective - Abstract
      • We use the effective g-factor of subgap states, g*, in hybrid InAs nanowires with an epitaxial Al shell to investigate how the superconducting density of states is distributed between the semiconductor core and the metallic shell. We find a step-like reduction of g* and improved hard gap with reduced carrier density in the nanowire, controlled by gate voltage. These observations are relevant for Majorana devices, which require tunable carrier density and g* exceeding the g-factor of the proximitizing superconductor. Additionally, we observe the closing and reopening of a gap in the subgap spectrum coincident with the appearance of a zero-bias conductance peak.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, M. T. Deng, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 037703 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.037703

    • Hybridization at Superconductor-Semiconductor Interfaces - Abstract
      • Hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices are currently one of the most promising platforms for realizing Majorana zero modes. Their topological properties are controlled by the band alignment of the two materials, as well as the electrostatic environment, which are currently not well understood. Here, we pursue to fill in this gap and address the role of band bending and superconductor-semiconductor hybridization in such devices by analyzing a gated single Al-InAs interface using a self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson approach. Our numerical analysis shows that the band bending leads to an interface quantum well, which localizes the charge in the system near the superconductor-semiconductor interface. We investigate the hybrid band structure and analyze its response to varying the gate voltage and thickness of the Al layer. This is done by studying the hybridization degrees of the individual subbands, which determine the induced pairing and effective $g$-factors. The numerical results are backed by approximate analytical expressions which further clarify key aspects of the band structure. We find that one can obtain states with strong superconductor-semiconductor hybridization at the Fermi energy, but this requires a fine balance of parameters, with the most important constraint being on the width of the Al layer. In fact, in the regime of interest, we find an almost periodic dependence of the hybridization degree on the Al width, with a period roughly equal to the thickness of an Al monolayer. This implies that disorder and shape irregularities, present in realistic devices, may play an important role for averaging out this sensitivity and, thus, may be necessary for stabilizing the topological phase.
    • August E. G. Mikkelsen, Panagiotis Kotetes, Peter Krogstrup, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. X 8, 031040 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.8.031040

    • Field effect enhancement in buffered quantum nanowire networks - Abstract
      • III-V semiconductor nanowires have shown great potential in various quantum transport experiments. However, realizing a scalable high-quality nanowire-based platform that could lead to quantum information applications has been challenging. Here, we study the potential of selective area growth by molecular beam epitaxy of InAs nanowire networks grown on GaAs-based buffer layers. The buffered geometry allows for substantial elastic strain relaxation and a strong enhancement of field effect mobility. We show that the networks possess strong spin-orbit interaction and long phase coherence lengths with a temperature dependence indicating ballistic transport. With these findings, and the compatibility of the growth method with hybrid epitaxy, we conclude that the material platform fulfills the requirements for a wide range of quantum experiments and applications.
    • Filip Krizek, Joachim E. Sestoft, Pavel Aseev, Sara Marti-Sanchez, Saulius Vaitiekenas, Lucas Casparis, Sabbir A. Khan, Yu Liu, Tomas Stankevic, Alexander M. Whiticar, Alexandra Fursina, Frenk Boekhout, Rene Koops, Emanuele Uccelli, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Charles M. Marcus, Jordi Arbiol, Peter Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 093401 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.093401

    • Engineering hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires for stronger topological protection - Abstract
      • The combination of strong spin-orbit coupling, large $g$-factors, and the coupling to a superconductor can be used to create a topologically protected state in a semiconductor nanowire. Here we report on growth and characterization of hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires, with varying composition and crystal structure. We find the strongest spin-orbit interaction at intermediate compositions in zincblende InAs$_{1-x}$Sb$_{x}$ nanowires, exceeding that of both InAs and InSb materials, confirming recent theoretical studies \cite{winkler2016topological}. We show that the epitaxial InAsSb/Al interfaces allows for a hard induced superconducting gap and 2$e$ transport in Coulomb charging experiments, similar to experiments on InAs/Al and InSb/Al materials, and find measurements consistent with topological phase transitions at low magnetic fields due to large effective $g$-factors. Finally we present a method to grow pure wurtzite InAsSb nanowires which are predicted to exhibit even stronger spin-orbit coupling than the zincblende structure.
    • Joachim E. Sestoft, Thomas Kanne, Aske Nørskov Gejl, Merlin von Soosten, Jeremy S. Yodh, Daniel Sherman, Brian Tarasinski, Michael Wimmer, Erik Johnson, Mingtang Deng, Jesper Nygård, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Charles M. Marcus, Peter Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 044202 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.044202

    • Anharmonicity of a superconducting qubit with a few-mode Josephson junction - Abstract
      • Coherent operation of gate-voltage-controlled hybrid transmon qubits (gatemons) based on semiconductor nanowires was recently demonstrated. Here we experimentally investigate the anharmonicity in epitaxial InAs-Al Josephson junctions, a key parameter for their use as a qubit. Anharmonicity is found to be reduced by roughly a factor of two compared to conventional metallic junctions, and dependent on gate voltage. Experimental results are consistent with a theoretical model, indicating that Josephson coupling is mediated by a small number of highly transmitting modes in the semiconductor junction.
    • A. Kringhøj, L. Casparis, M. Hell, T. W. Larsen, F. Kuemmeth, M. Leijnse, K. Flensberg, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 97, 060508 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.060508

  • 2017
    • Scaling of Majorana Zero-Bias Conductance Peaks - Abstract
      • We report an experimental study of the scaling of zero-bias conductance peaks compatible with Majorana zero modes as a function of magnetic field, tunnel coupling, and temperature in one-dimensional structures fabricated from an epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure. Results are consistent with theory, including a peak conductance that is proportional to tunnel coupling, saturates at $2e^2/h$, decreases as expected with field-dependent gap, and collapses onto a simple scaling function in the dimensionless ratio of temperature and tunnel coupling.
    • Fabrizio Nichele, Asbjorn C. C. Drachmann, Alexander M. Whiticar, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Henri J. Suominen, Antonio Fornieri, Tian Wang, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Candice Thomas, Anthony T. Hatke, Peter Krogstrup, Michael J. Manfra, Karsten Flensberg, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 136803 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.136803

    • Current–phase relations of few-mode InAs nanowire Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • Gate-tunable semiconductor nanowires with superconducting leads have great potential for quantum computation and as model systems for mesoscopic Josephson junctions. The supercurrent, $I$, versus the phase, $\phi$, across the junction is called the current-phase relation (CPR). It can reveal not only the amplitude of the critical current, but also the number of modes and their transmission. We measured the CPR of many individual InAs nanowire Josephson junctions, one junction at a time. Both the amplitude and shape of the CPR varied between junctions, with small critical currents and skewed CPRs indicating few-mode junctions with high transmissions. In a gate-tunable junction, we found that the CPR varied with gate voltage: Near the onset of supercurrent, we observed behavior consistent with resonant tunneling through a single, highly transmitting mode. The gate dependence is consistent with modeled subband structure that includes an effective tunneling barrier due to an abrupt change in the Fermi level at the boundary of the gate-tuned region. These measurements of skewed, tunable, few-mode CPRs are promising both for applications that require anharmonic junctions and for Majorana readout proposals.
    • Eric M. Spanton, Mingtang Deng, Saulius Vaitiekėnas, Peter Krogstrup, Jesper Nygård, Charles M. Marcus, Kathryn A. Moler
      Journal reference: Nature Physics (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys4224

    • Transport Signatures of Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Majorana Island - Abstract
      • We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (~ 1 {\mu}s) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (> 10 {\mu}s). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. In energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.
    • S. M. Albrecht, E. B. Hansen, A. P. Higginbotham, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, J. Danon, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 137701 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.137701

    • Normal, superconducting and topological regimes of hybrid double quantum dots - Abstract
      • Epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials are an excellent basis for studying mesoscopic and topological superconductivity, as the semiconductor inherits a hard superconducting gap while retaining tunable carrier density. Here, we investigate double-quantum-dot devices made from InAs nanowires with a patterned epitaxial Al two-facet shell that proximitizes two gate-defined segments along the nanowire. We follow the evolution of mesoscopic superconductivity and charging energy in this system as a function of magnetic field and voltage-tuned barriers. Inter-dot coupling is varied from strong to weak using side gates, and the ground state is varied between normal, superconducting, and topological regimes by applying a magnetic field. We identify the topological transition by tracking the spacing between successive cotunneling peaks as a function of axial magnetic field and show that the individual dots host weakly hybridized Majorana modes.
    • D. Sherman, J. S. Yodh, S. M. Albrecht, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 12, 212 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.227

  • 2016
    • Majorana bound state in a coupled quantum-dot hybrid-nanowire system - Abstract
      • Hybrid nanowires combining semiconductor and superconductor materials appear well suited for the creation, detection, and control of Majorana bound states (MBSs). We demonstrate the emergence of MBSs from coalescing Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a hybrid InAs nanowire with epitaxial Al, using a quantum dot at the end of the nanowire as a spectrometer. Electrostatic gating tuned the nanowire density to a regime of one or a few ABSs. In an applied axial magnetic field, a topological phase emerges in which ABSs move to zero energy and remain there, forming MBSs. We observed hybridization of the MBS with the end-dot bound state, which is in agreement with a numerical model. The ABS/MBS spectra provide parameters that are useful for understanding topological superconductivity in this system.
    • M. T. Deng, S. Vaitiekenas, E. B. Hansen, J. Danon, M. Leijnse, K. Flensberg, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Science 354, 1557-1562 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf3961

    • InAs Nanowire with Epitaxial Aluminum as a Single-Electron Transistor with Fixed Tunnel Barriers - Abstract
      • We report on fabrication of single-electron transistors using InAs nanowires with epitaxial aluminium with fixed tunnel barriers made of aluminium oxide. The devices exhibit a hard superconducting gap induced by the proximized aluminium cover shell and they behave as metallic single-electron transistors. In contrast to the typical few channel contacts in semiconducting devices, our approach forms opaque multichannel contacts to a semiconducting wire and thus provides a complementary way to study them. In addition, we confirm that unwanted extra quantum dots can appear at the surface of the nanowire. Their presence is prevented in our devices, and also by inserting a protective layer of GaAs between the InAs and Al, the latter being suitable for standard measurement methods.
    • M. Taupin, E. Mannila, P. Krogstrup, V. F. Maisi, H. Nguyen, S. M. Albrecht, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus, J. P. Pekola
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 6, 054017 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.6.054017

    • Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands - Abstract
      • Majorana zero modes are quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems that have been proposed as building blocks of fault-tolerant quantum computers [1]. They are expected to exhibit non-Abelian particle statistics, in contrast to the usual statistics of fermions and bosons, enabling quantum operations to be performed by braiding isolated modes around one another. Quantum braiding operations are topologically protected insofar as these modes are pinned near zero energy, and the pinning is predicted to be exponential as the modes become spatially separated. Following theoretical proposals, several experiments have identified signatures of Majorana modes in proximitized nanowires and atomic chains, with small mode-splitting potentially explained by hybridization of Majoranas. Here, we use Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy in an InAs nanowire segment with epitaxial aluminum, which forms a proximity-induced superconducting Coulomb island (a Majorana island) that is isolated from normal-metal leads by tunnel barriers, to measure the splitting of near-zero-energy Majorana modes. We observe exponential suppression of energy splitting with increasing wire length. For short devices of a few hundred nanometers, sub-gap state energies oscillate as the magnetic field is varied, as is expected for hybridized Majorana modes. Splitting decreases by a factor of about ten for each half micrometer of increased wire length. For devices longer than about one micrometer, transport in strong magnetic fields occurs through a zero-energy state that is energetically isolated from a continuum, yielding uniformly spaced Coulomb-blockade conductance peaks, consistent with teleportation via Majorana modes. Our results help explain the trivial-to-topological transition in finite systems and to quantify the scaling of topological protection with end-mode separation.
    • S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature 531, 206 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17162

    • Gatemon Benchmarking and Two-Qubit Operations - Abstract
      • Recent experiments have demonstrated superconducting transmon qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions. These hybrid gatemon qubits utilize field effect tunability characteristic for semiconductors to allow complete qubit control using gate voltages, potentially a technological advantage over conventional flux-controlled transmons. Here, we present experiments with a two-qubit gatemon circuit. We characterize qubit coherence and stability and use randomized benchmarking to demonstrate single-qubit gate errors below 0.7% for all gates, including voltage-controlled $Z$ rotations. We show coherent capacitive coupling between two gatemons and coherent swap operations. Finally, we perform a two-qubit controlled-phase gate with an estimated fidelity of 91%, demonstrating the potential of gatemon qubits for building scalable quantum processors.
    • L. Casparis, T. W. Larsen, M. S. Olsen, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 150505 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.150505

    • Two-dimensional epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures: A platform for topological superconducting networks - Abstract
      • Progress in the emergent field of topological superconductivity relies on synthesis of new material combinations, combining superconductivity, low density, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). For example, theory [1-4] indicates that the interface between a one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor (Sm) with strong SOC and a superconductor (S) hosts Majorana modes with nontrivial topological properties [5-8]. Recently, epitaxial growth of Al on InAs nanowires was shown to yield a high quality S-Sm system with uniformly transparent interfaces [9] and a hard induced gap, indicted by strongly suppressed sub gap tunneling conductance [10]. Here we report the realization of a two-dimensional (2D) InAs/InGaAs heterostructure with epitaxial Al, yielding a planar S-Sm system with structural and transport characteristics as good as the epitaxial wires. The realization of 2D epitaxial S-Sm systems represent a significant advance over wires, allowing extended networks via top-down processing. Among numerous potential applications, this new material system can serve as a platform for complex networks of topological superconductors with gate-controlled Majorana zero modes [1-4]. We demonstrate gateable Josephson junctions and a highly transparent 2D S-Sm interface based on the product of excess current and normal state resistance.
    • J. Shabani, M. Kjaergaard, H. J. Suominen, Younghyun Kim, F. Nichele, K. Pakrouski, T. Stankevic, R. M. Lutchyn, P. Krogstrup, R. Feidenhans'l, S. Kraemer, C. Nayak, M. Troyer, C. M. Marcus, C. J. Palmstrøm
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 155402 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.155402

  • 2015
    • Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation - Abstract
      • The thermal gradient along indium-arsenide nanowires was engineered by a combination of fabricated micro- trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.
    • R. Tanta, M. H. Madsen, Z. Liao, P. Krogstrup, T. Vosch, J. Nygard, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 243101 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4937442

    • Semiconductor-Nanowire-Based Superconducting Qubit - Abstract
      • We introduce a hybrid qubit based on a semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer. Josephson energy of the transmon-like device ("gatemon") is controlled by an electrostatic gate that depletes carriers in a semiconducting weak link region. Strong coupling to an on-chip microwave cavity and coherent qubit control via gate voltage pulses is demonstrated, yielding reasonably long relaxation times (0.8 {\mu}s) and dephasing times (1 {\mu}s), exceeding gate operation times by two orders of magnitude, in these first-generation devices. Because qubit control relies on voltages rather than fluxes, dissipation in resistive control lines is reduced, screening reduces crosstalk, and the absence of flux control allows operation in a magnetic field, relevant for topological quantum information.
    • T. W. Larsen, K. D. Petersson, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 127001 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.127001

    • Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Many present and future applications of superconductivity would benefit from electrostatic control of carrier density and tunneling rates, the hallmark of semiconductor devices. One particularly exciting application is the realization of topological superconductivity as a basis for quantum information processing. Proposals in this direction based on proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires are appealing because the key ingredients are currently in hand. However, previous instances of proximitized semiconductors show significant tunneling conductance below the superconducting gap, suggesting a continuum of subgap states---a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial Al-InAs superconductor-semiconductor nanowires. The hard gap, along with favorable material properties and gate-tunability, makes this new hybrid system attractive for a number of applications, as well as fundamental studies of mesoscopic superconductivity.
    • W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, T. S. Jespersen, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 10, 232 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.306

    • Parity lifetime of bound states in a proximitized semiconductor nanowire - Abstract
      • Quasiparticle excitations can compromise the performance of superconducting devices, causing high frequency dissipation, decoherence in Josephson qubits, and braiding errors in proposed Majorana-based topological quantum computers. Quasiparticle dynamics have been studied in detail in metallic superconductors but remain relatively unexplored in semiconductor-superconductor structures, which are now being intensely pursued in the context of topological superconductivity. To this end, we introduce a new physical system comprised of a gate-confined semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer, yielding an isolated, proximitized nanowire segment. We identify Andreev-like bound states in the semiconductor via bias spectroscopy, determine the characteristic temperatures and magnetic fields for quasiparticle excitations, and extract a parity lifetime (poisoning time) of the bound state in the semiconductor exceeding 10 ms.
    • A. P. Higginbotham, S. M. Albrecht, G. Kirsanskas, W. Chang, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Physics 11, 1017 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys3461

    • Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface plays a key role for the quality of the induced superconducting gap. Here we present epitaxial growth of semiconductor-metal core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy, a method that provides a conceptually new route to controlled electrical contacting of nanostructures and for designing devices for specialized applications such as topological and gate-controlled superconducting electronics. Our materials of choice, InAs/Al, are grown with epitaxially matched single plane interfaces, and alternative semiconductor/metal combinations allowing epitaxial interface matching in nanowires are discussed. We formulate the grain growth kinetics of the metal phase in general terms of continuum parameters and bicrystal symmetries. The method realizes the ultimate limit of uniform interfaces and appears to solve the soft-gap problem in superconducting hybrid structures.
    • P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Nature Materials 14, 400 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nmat4176

  • 2013
    • Epitaxial aluminum contacts to InAs nanowires - Abstract
      • We report a method for making epitaxial superconducting contacts to semiconducting nanowires. The temperature and gate characteristics demonstrate barrier-free electrical contact, and the properties in the superconducting state are investigated at low temperature. Half-covering aluminum contacts are realized without the need of lithography and we demonstrate how to controllably insert high-band gap layers in the interface region. These developments are relevant to hybrid superconductor-nanowire devices that support Majorana zero energy states.
    • 1309.4569v1 [pdf]
      N. L. B. Ziino, P. Krogstrup, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. B. Wagner, C. M. Marcus, J. Nygård, T. S. Jespersen
      [pdf]

    • Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires - Abstract
      • Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of GaInAs were grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveal the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the GaInAs/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown GaInAs segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.
    • Sriram Venkatesan, Morten H. Madsen, Herbert Schmid, Peter Krogstrup, Erik Johnson, Christina Scheu
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 063106 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4818338

    • Advances in the theory of III–V nanowire growth dynamics - Abstract
      • Nanowire (NW) crystal growth via the vapour_liquid_solid mechanism is a complex dynamic process involving interactions between many atoms of various thermodynamic states. With increasing speed over the last few decades many works have reported on various aspects of the growth mechanisms, both experimentally and theoretically. We will here propose a general continuum formalism for growth kinetics based on thermodynamic parameters and transition state kinetics. We use the formalism together with key elements of recent research to present a more overall treatment of III_V NW growth, which can serve as a basis to model and understand the dynamical mechanisms in terms of the basic control parameters, temperature and pressures/beam fluxes. Self-catalysed GaAs NW growth on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is used as a model system.
    • Peter Krogstrup, Henrik I. Jørgensen, Erik Johnson, Morten Hannibal Madsen, Claus B. Sørensen, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Martin Aagesen, Jesper Nygård, Frank Glas
      Journal reference: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 (2013) 313001 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/46/31/313001

    • Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit - Abstract
      • Light management is of great importance to photovoltaic cells, as it determines the fraction of incident light entering the device. An optimal pn-junction combined with an optimal light absorption can lead to a solar cell efficiency above the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show how this is possible by studying photocurrent generation for a single core-shell p-i-n junction GaAs nanowire solar cell grown on a silicon substrate. At one sun illumination a short circuit current of 180 mA/cm^2 is obtained, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than what would be predicted from Lambert-Beer law. The enhanced light absorption is shown to be due to a light concentrating property of the standing nanowire as shown by photocurrent maps of the device. The results imply new limits for the maximum efficiency obtainable with III-V based nanowire solar cells under one sun illumination.
    • Peter Krogstrup, Henrik Ingerslev Jørgensen, Martin Heiss, Olivier Demichel, Jeppe V. Holm, Martin Aagesen, Jesper Nygard, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral
      Journal reference: Nature Photonics 7, 306-310 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.32

    • Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires - Abstract
      • The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also demonstrate that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.
    • Alberto Casadei, Peter Krogstrup, Martin Heiss, Jason A. Röhr, Carlo Colombo, Thibaud Ruelle, Shivendra Upadhyay, Claus B. Sørensen, Jesper Nygård, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013117 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4772020