Publications by All QDev staff

  • 2024
    • BCS surrogate models for floating superconductor-semiconductor hybrids - Abstract
      • Superconductor-semiconductor hybrid devices, involving quantum dots interfaced with floating and/or grounded superconductors, have reached a level of complexity which calls for the development of versatile and numerically efficient modelling tools. Here, we propose an extension of the surrogate model solver for sub-gap states [Phys. Rev. B 108, L220506 (2023)], which is able to handle floating superconducting islands with finite charging energy. Upon eliminating all finite-size effects of the computationally demanding Richardson model approach, we achieve a more efficient way of calculating the sub-gap spectra and related observables without compromising their accuracy. We provide a number of benchmarks between the two approaches and showcase the versatility of the extended surrogate model solver by studying the stability of spin-triplet ground states in various tunable devices. The methods introduced here set the stage for reliable microscopic simulations of complex superconducting quantum circuits across all their relevant parameter regimes.
    • 2402.18357v1 [pdf]
      Virgil V. Baran, Jens Paaske

    • Real-time two-axis control of a spin qubit - Abstract
      • Optimal control of qubits requires the ability to adapt continuously to their ever-changing environment. We demonstrate a real-time control protocol for a two-electron singlet-triplet qubit with two fluctuating Hamiltonian parameters. Our approach leverages single-shot readout classification and dynamic waveform generation, allowing full Hamiltonian estimation to dynamically stabilize and optimize the qubit performance. Powered by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), the quantum control electronics estimates the Overhauser field gradient between the two electrons in real time, enabling controlled Overhauser-driven spin rotations and thus bypassing the need for micromagnets or nuclear polarization protocols. It also estimates the exchange interaction between the two electrons and adjusts their detuning, resulting in extended coherence of Hadamard rotations when correcting for fluctuations of both qubit axes. Our study emphasizes the critical role of feedback in enhancing the performance and stability of quantum devices affected by quasistatic noise. Feedback will play an essential role in improving performance in various qubit implementations that go beyond spin qubits, helping realize the full potential of quantum devices for quantum technology applications.
    • Fabrizio Berritta, Torbjørn Rasmussen, Jan A. Krzywda, Joost van der Heijden, Federico Fedele, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Evert van Nieuwenburg, Jeroen Danon, Anasua Chatterjee, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Nature Communications 15, 1676 (2024) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-024-45857-0

    • Voltage-controlled synthesis of higher harmonics in hybrid Josephson junction circuits - Abstract
      • We report measurements of the current-phase relation of two voltage-controlled semiconductor-superconductor hybrid Josephson junctions (JJs) in series. The two hybrid junctions behave similar to a single-mode JJ with effective transparency determined by the ratio of Josephson coupling strengths of the two junctions. Gate-voltage control of Josephson coupling (measured from switching currents) allows tuning of the harmonic content from sinusoidal, for asymmetric tuning, to highly nonsinusoidal, for symmetric tuning. The experimentally observed tunable harmonic content agrees with a model based on two conventional (sinusoidal) JJs in series.
    • 2402.11603v1 [pdf]
      L. Banszerus, W. Marshall, C. W. Andersson, T. Lindemann, M. J. Manfra, C. M. Marcus, S. Vaitiekėnas

    • Supercurrent transport through - Abstract
      • We experimentally investigate supercurrent through Coulomb islands, where island and leads are fabricated from semiconducting nanowires with fully surrounding superconducting shells. Applying flux along the wire yields a series of destructive Little-Parks lobes with reentrant supercurrent. We find Coulomb blockade with 2$e$ peak spacing in the zeroth lobe and 1$e$ average spacing, with regions of significant even-odd modulation, in the first lobe. Evolution of Coulomb-peak amplitude through the first lobe is consistent with a theoretical model of supercurrent carried predominantly by zero-energy states in the leads and the island.
    • D. Razmadze, R. Seoane Souto, E. C. T. O'Farrell, P. Krogstrup, M. Leijnse, C. M. Marcus, S. Vaitiekėnas
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 109, L041302 (2024) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.109.L041302

    • Thouless pumping in Josephson junction arrays - Abstract
      • Recent advancements in fabrication techniques have enabled unprecedented clean interfaces and gate tunability in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures. Inspired by these developments, we propose protocols to realize Thouless quantum pumping in electrically tunable Josephson junction arrays. We analyze, in particular, the implementation of the Rice-Mele and the Harper-Hofstadter pumping schemes, whose realization would validate these systems as flexible platforms for quantum simulations. We investigate numerically the long-time behavior of chains of controllable superconducting islands in the Coulomb-blockaded regime. Our findings provide new insights into the dynamics of periodically driven interacting systems and highlight the robustness of Thouless pumping with respect to boundary effects typical of superconducting circuits.
    • Stavros Athanasiou, Ida E. Nielsen, Matteo M. Wauters, Michele Burrello
      Journal reference: SciPost Phys. 16, 083 (2024) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.16.3.083

  • 2023
    • Nonsinusoidal current-phase relations in semiconductor–superconductor– ferromagnetic insulator devices - Abstract
      • Coherent tunneling processes of multiple Cooper pairs across a Josephson junction give rise to higher harmonics in the current phase relation. In this work, we propose and study Josephson junctions based on semiconductor-superconductor-ferromagnetic insulator heterostructures to engineer nonsinusoidal current-phase relations. The gate-tunability of charge carriers density in the semiconductor, together with the adjustable magnetization of the ferromagnetic insulator, provides control over the content of the supercurrent harmonics. At finite exchange field, hybrid junctions can undergo a 0\,--\,$\pi$ phase transition, resulting in the supercurrent reversal. Close to the transition, single-pair tunneling is suppressed and the current-phase relation is dominated by the second-harmonic, indicating transport primarily by pairs of Cooper pairs. Finally, we demonstrate that non-collinear magnetization or spin-orbit coupling in the leads and the junction can lead to a gate-tunable Josephson diode effect with efficiencies of up to $\sim30\%$.
    • Andrea Maiani, Karsten Flensberg, Martin Leijnse, Constantin Schrade, Saulius Vaitiekėnas, Rubén Seoane Souto
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 107, 245415 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.107.245415

    • A fermion-parity qubit in a proximitized double quantum dot - Abstract
      • Bound states in quantum dots coupled to superconductors can be in a coherent superposition of states with different electron number but with the same number parity. Electrostatic gating can tune this superposition to a sweet spot, where the quantum dot has the same mean electric charge independent of its electron-number parity. Here, we propose to encode quantum information in the local fermion parity of two tunnel-coupled quantum dots embedded in a Josephson junction. At the sweet spot, the qubit states have zero charge dipole moment. This protects the qubit from dephasing due to electric field fluctuations. Depending on the strength of the tunnel coupling between the dots, the system is further protected towards either relaxation (weak tunneling) or dephasing (strong tunneling) from noise coupling separately to each quantum dot. We describe initialization and readout as well as single-qubit and two-qubit gates by pulsing gate voltages.
    • 2307.05678v1 [pdf]
      Max Geier, Rubén Seoane Souto, Jens Schulenborg, Serwan Asaad, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg

    • The topological Kondo model out of equilibrium - Abstract
      • The topological Kondo effect is a genuine manifestation of the nonlocality of Majorana modes. We investigate its out-of-equilibrium signatures in a model with a Cooper-pair box hosting four of these topological modes, each connected to a metallic lead. Through matrix-product-state techniques, we simulate the relaxation of the Majorana magnetization, which allows us to determine the related Kondo temperature. Then, we analyze the onset of electric transport after a quantum quench of a lead voltage. Our results apply to Majorana Cooper-pair boxes fabricated in double nanowire devices and provide non-perturbative evidence of the crossover from weak-coupling states to the strongly correlated topological Kondo regime. The latter dominates at the superconductor charge degeneracy points and displays the expected universal fractional zero-bias conductance.
    • 2307.03773v1 [pdf]
      Matteo M. Wauters, Chia-Min Chung, Lorenzo Maffi, Michele Burrello

    • Strange correlators for topological quantum systems from bulk-boundary correspondence - Abstract
      • "Strange" correlators provide a tool to detect topological phases arising in many-body models by computing the matrix elements of suitably defined two-point correlations between the states under investigation and trivial reference states. Their effectiveness depends on the choice of the adopted operators. In this paper we give a systematic procedure for this choice, discussing the advantages of choosing operators using the bulk-boundary correspondence of the systems under scrutiny. Via the scaling exponents, we directly relate the algebraic decay of the strange correlators with the scaling dimensions of gapless edge modes operators. We begin our analysis with lattice models hosting symmetry-protected topological phases and we analyze the sums of the strange correlators, pointing out that integrating their moduli substantially reduces cancellations and finite-size effects. We also analyze instances of systems hosting intrinsic topological order, as well as strange correlators between states with different nontrivial topologies. Our results for both translational and non-translational invariant cases, and in presence of on-site disorder and long-range couplings, extend the validity of the strange correlators approach for the diagnosis of topological phases of matter, and indicate a general procedure for their optimal choice.
    • Luca Lepori, Michele Burrello, Andrea Trombettoni, Simone Paganelli
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 108, 035110 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.108.035110

    • Gate reflectometry in dense quantum dot arrays - Abstract
      • Silicon quantum devices are maturing from academic single- and two-qubit devices to industrially-fabricated dense quantum-dot (QD) arrays, increasing operational complexity and the need for better pulsed-gate and readout techniques. We perform gate-voltage pulsing and gate-based reflectometry measurements on a dense 2$\times$2 array of silicon quantum dots fabricated in a 300-mm-wafer foundry. Utilizing the strong capacitive couplings within the array, it is sufficient to monitor only one gate electrode via high-frequency reflectometry to establish single-electron occupation in each of the four dots and to detect single-electron movements with high bandwidth. A global top-gate electrode adjusts the overall tunneling times, while linear combinations of side-gate voltages yield detailed charge stability diagrams. To test for spin physics and Pauli spin blockade at finite magnetic fields, we implement symmetric gate-voltage pulses that directly reveal bidirectional interdot charge relaxation as a function of the detuning between two dots. Charge sensing within the array can be established without the involvement of adjacent electron reservoirs, important for scaling such split-gate devices towards longer 2$\times$N arrays. Our techniques may find use in the scaling of few-dot spin-qubit devices to large-scale quantum processors.
    • Fabio Ansaloni, Heorhii Bohuslavskyi, Federico Fedele, Torbjørn Rasmussen, Bertram Brovang, Fabrizio Berritta, Amber Heskes, Jing Li, Louis Hutin, Benjamin Venitucci, Benoit Bertrand, Maud Vinet, Yann-Michel Niquet, Anasua Chatterjee, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: New J. Phys. 25, 033023 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/acc126

    • Simulations of the dynamics of quantum impurity problems with matrix product states - Abstract
      • The Anderson impurity model is a paradigmatic example in the study of strongly correlated quantum systems and describes an interacting quantum dot coupled to electronic leads. In this work, we characterize the emergence of the Kondo effect by investigating the model dynamics following a quantum quench based on matrix product state simulations. The relaxation of the impurity magnetization allows for the estimate of the predicted universal scaling of the Kondo temperature as a function of the impurity-lead hybridization and quantum dot repulsion. Additionally, our simulations permit us to evaluate the current in the nonequilibrium quasi-steady state appearing after the quench. Through their values, we examine the dependence of the conductance on the voltage bias $V_b$ and on the impurity chemical potential $V_g$, which displays a zero-bias Kondo peak. Our results are relevant for transport measurements in Coulomb blockaded devices, and, in particular, in quantum dots induced in nanowires.
    • 2304.13756v1 [pdf]
      Matteo M. Wauters, Chia-Min Chung, Lorenzo Maffi, Michele Burrello

    • Entanglement between quasiparticles in superconducting islands mediated by a single spin - Abstract
      • Condensed matter is composed of a small set of identical units, yet it shows an immense range of behaviour. Recently, an array of cold atoms was used to generate long-range quantum entanglement, a property of topological matter. Another approach to strong non-local correlations employs the macroscopic coherence of superconductors. Impurity spins in superconductors are thought to be unamenable to the formation of long-range spin entanglement because each spin tends to be screened by binding to a quasiparticle from the superconductor to form a local singlet. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to attach a second quasiparticle to the spin, overscreening it into a doublet state carrying ferromagnetic correlations between two quasiparticles over a micrometer distance. To demonstrate this effect, which is strongest for equal binding, we symmetrically couple the spin of a quantum dot to two ultrasmall superconducting islands. The overscreened state requires sufficiently large Coulomb repulsion and exchange binding to become well defined. We predict that this state will carry long-range correlations for an alternating chain of quantum dots and superconducting islands, opening a new route to controllable large-scale entanglement in the solid state.
    • 2203.00104v2 [pdf]
      Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Alexandros Vekris, Luka Pavešič, Rok Žitko, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård

    • Non-Abelian holonomy of Majorana zero modes coupled to a chaotic quantum dot - Abstract
      • If a quantum dot is coupled to a topological superconductor via tunneling contacts, each contact hosts a Majorana zero mode in the limit of zero transmission. Close to a resonance and at a finite contact transparency, the resonant level in the quantum dot couples the Majorana modes, but a ground state degeneracy per fermion parity subspace remains if the number of Majorana modes coupled to the dot is five or larger. Upon varying shape-defining gate voltages while remaining close to resonance, a nontrivial evolution within the degenerate ground-state manifold can be achieved. We characterize the corresponding non-Abelian holonomy for a quantum dot with chaotic classical dynamics using random matrix theory and discuss measurable signatures of the non-Abelian time-evolution.
    • 2304.06754v1 [pdf]
      Max Geier, Svend Krøjer, Felix von Oppen, Charles M. Marcus, Karsten Flensberg, Piet W. Brouwer

    • Supercurrent reversal in ferromagnetic hybrid nanowire Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • We report supercurrent transport measurements in hybrid Josephson junctions comprised of semiconducting InAs nanowires with epitaxial ferromagnetic insulator EuS and superconducting Al coatings. The wires display a hysteretic superconducting window close to the coercivity, away from zero external magnetic field. Using a multi-interferometer setup, we measure the current-phase relation of multiple magnetic junctions and find an abrupt switch between $\pi$ and 0 phases within the superconducting window. We attribute the 0-$\pi$ transition to the discrete flipping of the EuS domains and provide a qualitative theory showing that a sizable exchange field can polarize the junction and lead to the supercurrent reversal. Both $0$ and $\pi$ phases can be realized at zero external field by demagnetizing the wire.
    • D. Razmadze, R. Seoane Souto, L. Galletti, A. Maiani, Y. Liu, P. Krogstrup, C. Schrade, A. Gyenis, C. M. Marcus, S. Vaitiekėnas
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.107.L081301
      2204.03202v3 [pdf]

    • Detecting Majorana modes by readout of poisoning-induced parity flips - Abstract
      • Reading out the parity degree of freedom of Majorana bound states is key to demonstrating their nonabelian exchange properties. Here, we present a low-energy model describing localized edge states in a two-arm device. We study parity-to-charge conversion based on coupling the superconductor bound states to a quantum dot whose charge is read out by a sensor. The dynamics of the system, including the readout device, is analyzed in full using a quantum-jump approach. We show how the resulting signal and noise ratio differentiates between local Majorana and Andreev bound states.
    • Jens Schulenborg, Svend Krøjer, Michele Burrello, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 107, L121401 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.107.L121401

    • Fast universal control of a flux qubit via exponentially tunable wave-function overlap - Abstract
      • Fast, high fidelity control and readout of protected superconducting qubits are fundamentally challenging due to their inherent insensitivity. We propose a flux qubit variation which enjoys a tunable level of protection against relaxation to resolve this outstanding issue. Our qubit design, the double-shunted flux qubit (DSFQ), realizes a generic double-well potential through its three junction ring geometry. One of the junctions is tunable, making it possible to control the barrier height and thus the level of protection. We analyze single- and two-qubit gate operations that rely on lowering the barrier. We show that this is a viable method that results in high fidelity gates as the non-computational states are not occupied during operations. Further, we show how the effective coupling to a readout resonator can be controlled by adjusting the externally applied flux while the DSFQ is protected from decaying into the readout resonator. Finally, we also study a double-loop gradiometric version of the DSFQ which is exponentially insensitive to variations in the global magnetic field, even when the loop areas are non-identical.
    • 2303.01102v1 [pdf]
      Svend Krøjer, Anders Enevold Dahl, Kasper Sangild Christensen, Morten Kjaergaard, Karsten Flensberg

    • Orbital-free approach for large-scale electrostatic simulations of quantum nanoelectronics devices - Abstract
      • The route to reliable quantum nanoelectronic devices hinges on precise control of the electrostatic environment. For this reason, accurate methods for electrostatic simulations are essential in the design process. The most widespread methods for this purpose are the Thomas-Fermi approximation, which provides quick approximate results, and the Schr\"odinger-Poisson method, which better takes into account quantum mechanical effects. The mentioned methods suffer from relevant shortcomings: the Thomas-Fermi method fails to take into account quantum confinement effects that are crucial in heterostructures, while the Schr\"odinger-Poisson method suffers severe scalability problems. This paper outlines the application of an orbital-free approach inspired by density functional theory. By introducing gradient terms in the kinetic energy functional, our proposed method incorporates corrections to the electronic density due to quantum confinement while it preserves the scalability of a theory that can be expressed as a functional minimization problem. This method offers a new approach to addressing large-scale electrostatic simulations of quantum nanoelectronic devices.
    • Waldemar Svejstrup, Andrea Maiani, Kevin Van Hoogdalem, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 4, p. 45004, Feb. 2023 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1361-6641/acbb9a

    • Phase Asymmetry of Andreev Spectra From Cooper-Pair Momentum - Abstract
      • In analogy to conventional semiconductor diodes, the Josephson diode exhibits superconducting properties that are asymmetric in applied bias. The effect has been investigated in number of systems recently, and requires a combination of broken time-reversal and inversion symmetries. We demonstrate a dual of the usual Josephson diode effect, a nonreciprocal response of Andreev bound states to a superconducting phase difference across the normal region of a superconductor-normal-superconductor Josephson junction, fabricated using an epitaxial InAs/Al heterostructure. Phase asymmetry of the subgap Andreev spectrum is absent in the absence of in-plane magnetic field and reaches a maximum at 0.15 T applied in the plane of the junction transverse to the current direction. We interpret the phase diode effect in this system as resulting from finite-momentum Cooper pairing due to orbital coupling to the in-plane magnetic field, without invoking Zeeman or spin-orbit coupling.
    • 2301.01881v1 [pdf]
      Abhishek Banerjee, Max Geier, Md Ahnaf Rahman, Candice Thomas, Tian Wang, Michael J. Manfra, Karsten Flensberg, Charles M. Marcus

    • An elongated quantum dot as a distributed charge sensor - Abstract
      • Increasing the separation between semiconductor quantum dots offers scaling advantages by fa- cilitating gate routing and the integration of sensors and charge reservoirs. Elongated quantum dots have been utilized for this purpose in GaAs heterostructures to extend the range of spin-spin interactions. Here, we study a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device where two quantum dot arrays are separated by an elongated quantum dot (340 nm long, 50 nm wide). We monitor charge transitions of the elongated quantum dot by measuring radiofrequency single-electron currents to a reservoir to which we connect a lumped-element resonator. We operate the dot as a single electron box to achieve charge sensing of remote quantum dots in each array, separated by a distance of 510 nm. Simultaneous charge detection on both ends of the elongated dot demonstrates that the charge is well distributed across its nominal length, supported by the simulated quantum-mechanical electron density. Our results illustrate how single-electron boxes can be realised with versatile foot- prints that may enable novel and compact quantum processor layouts, offering distributed charge sensing in addition to the possibility of mediated coupling.
    • 2301.01650v1 [pdf]
      S. M. Patomäki, J. Williams, F. Berritta, C. Laine, M. A. Fogarty, R. C. C. Leon, J. Jussot, S. Kubicek, A. Chatterjee, B. Govoreanu, F. Kuemmeth, J. J. L. Morton, M. F. Gonzalez-Zalba

    • Probing quantum devices with radio-frequency reflectometry - Abstract
      • Many important phenomena in quantum devices are dynamic, meaning that they cannot be studied using time-averaged measurements alone. Experiments that measure such transient effects are collectively known as fast readout. One of the most useful techniques in fast electrical readout is radio-frequency reflectometry, which can measure changes in impedance (both resistive and reactive) even when their duration is extremely short, down to a microsecond or less. Examples of reflectometry experiments, some of which have been realised and others so far only proposed, include projective measurements of qubits and Majorana devices for quantum computing, real-time measurements of mechanical motion and detection of non-equilibrium temperature fluctuations. However, all of these experiments must overcome the central challenge of fast readout: the large mismatch between the typical impedance of quantum devices (set by the resistance quantum) and of transmission lines (set by the impedance of free space). Here, we review the physical principles of radio-frequency reflectometry and its close cousins, measurements of radio-frequency transmission and emission. We explain how to optimise the speed and sensitivity of a radio-frequency measurement, and how to incorporate new tools such as superconducting circuit elements and quantum-limited amplifiers into advanced radio-frequency experiments. Our aim is three-fold: to introduce the readers to the technique, to review the advances to date and to motivate new experiments in fast quantum device dynamics. Our intended audience includes experimentalists in the field of quantum electronics who want to implement radio-frequency experiments or improve them, together with physicists in related fields who want to understand how the most important radio-frequency measurements work.
    • Florian Vigneau, Federico Fedele, Anasua Chatterjee, David Reilly, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Fernando Gonzalez-Zalba, Edward Laird, Natalia Ares
      Journal reference: Applied Physics Reviews 10, 021305 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0088229

    • Tuning the Josephson diode response with an ac current - Abstract
      • Josephson diodes are superconducting elements that show an asymmetry in the critical current depending on the direction of the current. Here, we theoretically explore how an alternating current bias can tune the response of such a diode. We show that for slow driving there is always a regime where the system can only carry zero-voltage dc current in one direction, thus effectively behaving as an ideal Josephson diode. Under fast driving, the diode efficiency is also tunable, although the ideal regime cannot be reached in this case. We also investigate the residual dissipation due to the time-dependent current bias and show that it remains small. All our conclusions are solely based on the critical current asymmetry of the junction, and are thus compatible with any Josephson diode.
    • 2312.09204v1 [pdf]
      Rubén Seoane Souto, Martin Leijnse, Constantin Schrade, Marco Valentini, Georgios Katsaros, Jeroen Danon

    • Surrogate model solver for impurity-induced superconducting subgap states - Abstract
      • A simple impurity solver is shown to capture the impurity-induced superconducting subgap states in quantitative agreement with the numerical renormalization group and quantum Monte-Carlo simulations. The solver is based on the exact diagonalization of a single-impurity Anderson model with discretized superconducting reservoirs including only a small number of effective levels. Their energies and couplings to the impurity $d$-level are chosen so as to best reproduce the Matsubara frequency dependence of the hybridization function. We provide a number of critical benchmarks and demonstrate the solvers efficiency in combination with the reduced basis method [Phys. Rev. B 107, 144503 (2023)] by calculating the phase diagram for an interacting three-terminal junction.
    • Virgil V. Baran, Emil J. P. Frost, Jens Paaske
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 108, L220506 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.108.L220506

    • Quantum simulation of the tricritical Ising model in tunable Josephson junction ladders - Abstract
      • Modern hybrid superconductor-semiconductor Josephson junction arrays are a promising platform for analog quantum simulations. Their controllable and non-sinusoidal energy/phase relation opens the path to implement nontrivial interactions and study the emergence of exotic quantum phase transitions. Here, we propose the analysis of an array of hybrid Josephson junctions defining a 2-leg ladder geometry for the quantum simulation of the tricritical Ising phase transition. This transition provides the paradigmatic example of minimal conformal models beyond Ising criticality and its excitations are intimately related with Fibonacci non-Abelian anyons and topological order in two dimensions. We study this superconducting system and its thermodynamic phases based on bosonization and matrix-product-states techniques. Its effective continuous description in terms of a three-frequency sine-Gordon quantum field theory suggests the presence of the targeted tricritical point and the numerical simulations confirm this picture. Our results indicate which experimental observables can be adopted in realistic devices to probe the physics and the phase transitions of the model. Additionally, our proposal provides a useful one-dimensional building block to design exotic topological order in two-dimensional scalable Josephson junction arrays.
    • 2310.18300v2 [pdf]
      Lorenzo Maffi, Niklas Tausendpfund, Matteo Rizzi, Michele Burrello

    • Gate-tunable superconductivity in hybrid InSb–Pb nanowires - Abstract
      • We present a report on hybrid InSb-Pb nanowires that combine high spin-orbit coupling with a high critical field and a large superconducting gap. Material characterization indicates the Pb layer of high crystal quality on the nanowire side facets. Hard induced superconducting gaps and gate-tunable supercurrent are observed in the hybrid nanowires. These results showcase the promising potential of this material combination for a diverse range of applications in hybrid quantum transport devices.
    • Yan Chen, David van Driel, Charalampos Lampadaris, Sabbir A Khan, Khalifah Alattallah, Lunjie Zeng, Eva Olsson, Tom Dvir, Peter Krogstrup, Yu Liu
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 123, 082601 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0155663

    • Probing Majorana localization in minimal Kitaev chains through a quantum dot - Abstract
      • Artificial Kitaev chains, formed by quantum dots coupled via superconductors, have emerged as a promising platform for realizing Majorana bound states. Even a minimal Kitaev chain (a quantum dot--superconductor--quantum dot setup) can host Majorana states at discrete sweet spots. However, unambiguously identifying Majorana sweet spots in such a system is still challenging. In this work, we propose an additional dot coupled to one side of the chain as a tool to identify good sweet spots in minimal Kitaev chains. When the two Majorana states in the chain overlap, the extra dot couples to both and thus splits an even--odd ground-state degeneracy when its level is on resonance. In contrast, a ground-state degeneracy will persist for well-separated Majorana states. This difference can be used to identify points in parameter space with spatially separated Majorana states, using tunneling spectroscopy measurements. We perform a systematic analysis of different relevant situations. We show that the additional dot can help distinguishing between Majorana sweet spots and other trivial zero-energy crossings. We also characterize the different conductance patterns, which can serve as a guide for future experiments aiming to study Majorana states in minimal Kitaev chains.
    • Rubén Seoane Souto, Athanasios Tsintzis, Martin Leijnse, Jeroen Danon
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Research 5, 043182 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.5.043182

    • Phase Asymmetry of Andreev Spectra from Cooper-Pair Momentum - Abstract
      • In analogy to conventional semiconductor diodes, the Josephson diode exhibits superconducting properties that are asymmetric in applied bias. The effect has been investigated in number of systems recently, and requires a combination of broken time-reversal and inversion symmetries. We demonstrate a dual of the usual Josephson diode effect, a nonreciprocal response of Andreev bound states to a superconducting phase difference across the normal region of a superconductor-normal-superconductor Josephson junction, fabricated using an epitaxial InAs/Al heterostructure. Phase asymmetry of the subgap Andreev spectrum is absent in the absence of in-plane magnetic field and reaches a maximum at 0.15 T applied in the plane of the junction transverse to the current direction. We interpret the phase diode effect in this system as resulting from finite-momentum Cooper pairing due to orbital coupling to the in-plane magnetic field, without invoking Zeeman or spin-orbit coupling.
    • Abhishek Banerjee, Max Geier, Md Ahnaf Rahman, Candice Thomas, Tian Wang, Michael J. Manfra, Karsten Flensberg, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 131, 196301 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.131.196301

    • Spin spectroscopy of a hybrid superconducting nanowire using side-coupled quantum dots - Abstract
      • We realize a device, based on InAs two-dimensional electron gas proximitized by superconducting Al, which allows a single quantum dot level to be used as a spectrometer of the density of states in a nanowire. Applying a magnetic field parallel to the plane of the device causes the levels of the dot to split, enabling spin resolved spectroscopy. Using this method, we are able to study the spin and charge polarization of the allowed transport through sub-gap states which form in the nanowire and evolve with varying magnetic field and gate voltage.
    • Alisa Danilenko, Andreas Pöschl, Deividas Sabonis, Vasileios Vlachodimitropoulos, Candice Thomas, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 108, 054514 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.108.054514

    • Few-mode to mesoscopic junctions in gatemon qubits - Abstract
      • We investigate a semiconductor nanowire-based gatemon qubit with epitaxial Al on two facets of the nanowire, allowing gate control of wire density. Two segments have the Al removed, one forming a Josephson junction and the other operating as a transistor, providing in-situ switching between dc transport and qubit operation. Gating the NW changes the bulk wire potential distribution, while gating the Josephson junction changes the number of junction modes. Both effects are revealed by the dependence of qubit frequency on parallel magnetic field. A detailed model of the wire and junction yields behavior consistent with experiment. In the multi-mode regime, fluctuations in qubit frequency are considerably smaller than the theoretical "universal" value, also smaller than numerics, and consistent with previous measurements of fluctuating critical current.
    • Alisa Danilenko, Deividas Sabonis, Georg W. Winkler, Oscar Erlandsson, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 108, L020505 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.108.L020505

    • Parity switching in a full-shell superconductor-semiconductor nanowire qubit - Abstract
      • The rate of charge-parity switching in a full-shell superconductor-semiconductor nanowire qubit is measured by directly monitoring the dispersive shift of a readout resonator. At zero magnetic field, the measured switching time scale $T_P$ is on the order of 100 ms. Two-tone spectroscopy data post-selected on charge-parity is demonstrated. With increasing temperature or magnetic field, TP is at first constant, then exponentially suppressed, consistent with a model that includes both non-equilibrium and thermally activated quasiparticles. As TP is suppressed, qubit lifetime T1 also decreases. The long $T_P\sim 0.1$ s at zero field is promising for future development of qubits based on hybrid nanowires.
    • O. Erlandsson, D. Sabonis, A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 108, L121406 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.108.L121406

    • Electrostatic control of quasiparticle poisoning in a hybrid semiconductor-superconductor island - Abstract
      • The performance of superconducting devices is often degraded by the uncontrolled appearance and disappearance of quasiparticles, a process known as poisoning. We demonstrate electrostatic control of quasiparticle poisoning in the form of single-charge tunneling across a fixed barrier onto a Coulomb island in an InAs/Al hybrid nanowire. High-bandwidth charge sensing was used to monitor charge occupancy of the island across Coulomb blockade peaks, where tunneling rates were maximal, and Coulomb valleys, where tunneling was absent. Electrostatic gates changed on-peak tunneling rates by two orders of magnitude for a barrier with fixed normal-state resistance, which we attribute to gate dependence of the size and softness of the induced superconducting gap on the island, corroborated by separate density-of-states measurements. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of tunneling rates are also investigated.
    • H. Q. Nguyen, D. Sabonis, D. Razmadze, E. T. Mannila, V. F. Maisi, D. M. T. van Zanten, E. C. T. O'Farrell, P. Krogstrup, F. Kuemmeth, J. P. Pekola, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 108, L041302 (2023) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.108.L041302

  • 2022
    • Nonlocal transport signatures of Andreev bound states - Abstract
      • In this PhD thesis, quantum devices based on molecular-beam epitaxy grown InAs semiconductor with an in-situ grown epitaxial Al film were investigated. Novel device geometries were realized that allow for the study of bound states that emerge at low temperatures in semiconducting nanowires due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman effect, and superconducting proximity effect. Experiments utilizing either gate-defined nanowires in two-dimensional heterostructures or vapor-liquid-solid grown nanowires with a full-shell of Al are presented. Devices and experimental methods were developed that allow for tunneling spectroscopy at multiple locations of a nanowire. Results of nonlocal conductance transport measurements of Andreev bound states are discussed. Due to their extended wavefunction, bound states that are locally hybridized with a quantum dot show characteristic signatures in tunneling spectroscopy at neighboring measurement locations. If the distance between neighboring tunneling measurement locations is larger than 0.8 $\mathrm{\mu m}$ no signatures of extended bound states was observed.
    • 2212.12068v1 [pdf]
      Andreas Pöschl

    • Autonomous Estimation of High-Dimensional Coulomb Diamonds from Sparse Measurements - Abstract
      • Quantum dot arrays possess ground states governed by Coulomb energies, utilized prominently by singly occupied quantum dots, each implementing a spin qubit. For such quantum processors, the controlled transitions between ground states are of operational significance, as these allow the control of quantum information within the array such as qubit initialization and entangling gates. For few-dot arrays, ground states are traditionally mapped out by performing dense raster-scan measurements in control-voltage space. These become impractical for larger arrays due to the large number of measurements needed to sample the high-dimensional gate-voltage hypercube and the comparatively little information extracted. We develop a hardware-triggered detection method based on reflectometry, to acquire measurements directly corresponding to transitions between ground states. These measurements are distributed sparsely within the high-dimensional voltage space by executing line searches proposed by a learning algorithm. Our autonomous software-hardware algorithm accurately estimates the polytope of Coulomb blockade boundaries, experimentally demonstrated in a 2$\times$2 array of silicon quantum dots.
    • Anasua Chatterjee, Fabio Ansaloni, Torbjørn Rasmussen, Bertram Brovang, Federico Fedele, Heorhii Bohuslavskyi, Oswin Krause, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Physical Review Applied 18, 064040 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.18.064040

    • Spin-resolved spectroscopy using a quantum dot defined in InAs 2DEG - Abstract
      • We realize a device, based on InAs two-dimensional electron gas proximitized by superconducting Al, which allows a single quantum dot level to be used as a spectrometer of the density of states in a nanowire. Applying a magnetic field parallel to the plane of the device causes the levels of the dot to split, enabling spin resolved spectroscopy. Using this method, we are able to study the spin and charge polarization of the allowed transport through sub-gap states which form in the nanowire and evolve with varying magnetic field and gate voltage.
    • 2212.10175v2 [pdf]
      Alisa Danilenko, Andreas Pöschl, Deividas Sabonis, Vasileios Vlachodimitropoulos, Candice Thomas, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus

    • Reusability report: Comparing gradient descent and Monte Carlo tree search optimization of quantum annealing schedules - Abstract
      • We provide a reusability report of the method presented by Chen et al. in "Optimizing quantum annealing schedules with Monte Carlo tree search enhanced with neural networks" and add further benchmarks on Max-Cut problems.
    • Matteo M. Wauters, Evert van Nieuwenburg
      DOI: 10.1038/s42256-022-00535-y
      2210.03411v1 [pdf]

    • Conductance matrix symmetries of multiterminal semiconductor-superconductor devices - Abstract
      • Nonlocal tunneling spectroscopy of multiterminal semiconductor-superconductor hybrid devices is a powerful tool to investigate the Andreev bound states below the parent superconducting gap. We examine how to exploit both microscopic and geometrical symmetries of the system to extract information on the normal and Andreev transmission probabilities from the multiterminal electric or thermoelectric differential conductance matrix under the assumption of an electrostatic potential landscape independent of the bias voltages, as well as the absence of leakage currents. These assumptions lead to several symmetry relations on the conductance matrix. Next, by considering a numerical model of a proximitized semiconductor wire with spin-orbit coupling and two normal contacts at its ends, we show how such symmetries can be used to identify the direction and relative strength of Rashba versus Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Finally, we study how a voltage-bias-dependent electrostatic potential as well as quasiparticle leakage break the derived symmetry relations and investigate characteristic signatures of these two contributions.
    • Andrea Maiani, Max Geier, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 106, 104516 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.106.104516

    • Few-mode to mesoscopic junctions in gatemon qubits - Abstract
      • We investigate a semiconductor nanowire-based gatemon qubit with epitaxial Al on two facets of the nanowire, allowing gate control of wire density. Two segments have the Al removed, one forming a Josephson junction and the other operating as a transistor, providing in-situ switching between dc transport and qubit operation. Gating the NW changes the bulk wire potential distribution, while gating the Josephson junction changes the number of junction modes. Both effects are revealed by the dependence of qubit frequency on parallel magnetic field. A detailed model of the wire and junction yields behavior consistent with experiment. In the multi-mode regime, fluctuations in qubit frequency are considerably smaller than the theoretical "universal" value, also smaller than numerics, and consistent with previous measurements of fluctuating critical current.
    • 2209.03688v1 [pdf]
      Alisa Danilenko, Deividas Sabonis, Georg W. Winkler, Oscar Erlandsson, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus

    • Multiterminal transport spectroscopy of subgap states in Coulomb-blockaded superconductors - Abstract
      • Subgap states are responsible for the low-bias transport features of hybrid superconducting--semiconducting devices. Here, we analyze the local and nonlocal differential conductance of Coulomb-blockaded multiterminal superconducting islands that host subgap states with different spatial structures. The emerging patterns of their transport spectroscopy are used to characterize the possible topological nature of these devices and offer the possibility of controlling their transport properties. We develop a next-to-leading order master equation to describe the multiterminal transport in superconductors with both strong Coulomb interactions and multiple subgap states, coupled with metallic leads. We show that the nonlocal differential conductance characterizes the spatial extension of the subgap states and signals the presence of degenerate bound states with a finite support on different parts of the device. Additionally, it displays sharp sign changes as a function of the induced charge of the superconductor, signaling energy crossings among its lowest excited states.
    • Rubén Seoane Souto, Matteo M. Wauters, Karsten Flensberg, Martin Leijnse, Michele Burrello
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 106, 235425 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.106.235425

    • Microwave sensing of Andreev bound states in a gate-defined superconducting quantum point contact - Abstract
      • We use a superconducting microresonator as a cavity to sense absorption of microwaves by a superconducting quantum point contact defined by surface gates over a proximitized two-dimensional electron gas. Renormalization of the cavity frequency with phase difference across the point contact is consistent with adiabatic coupling to Andreev bound states. Near $\pi$ phase difference, we observe random fluctuations in absorption with gate voltage, related to quantum interference-induced modulations in the electron transmission. We identify features consistent with the presence of single Andreev bound states and describe the Andreev-cavity interaction using a dispersive Jaynes-Cummings model. By fitting the weak Andreev-cavity coupling, we extract ~GHz decoherence consistent with charge noise and the transmission dispersion associated with a localized state.
    • Vivek Chidambaram, Anders Kringhøj, Lucas Casparis, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Tiantian Wang, Candice Thomas, Sergei Gronin, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Zhengyi Cui, Chenlu Liu, Kristof Moors, Michael J. Manfra, Karl D. Petersson, Malcolm R. Connolly
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Research 4, 023170 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.4.023170

    • Learning Coulomb Diamonds in Large Quantum Dot Arrays - Abstract
      • We introduce an algorithm that is able to find the facets of Coulomb diamonds in quantum dot arrays. We simulate these arrays using the constant-interaction model, and rely only on one-dimensional raster scans (rays) to learn a model of the device using regularized maximum likelihood estimation. This allows us to determine, for a given charge state of the device, which transitions exist and what the compensated gate voltages for these are. For smaller devices the simulator can also be used to compute the exact boundaries of the Coulomb diamonds, which we use to assess that our algorithm correctly finds the vast majority of transitions with high precision.
    • Oswin Krause, Anasua Chatterjee, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Evert van Nieuwenburg
      Journal reference: SciPost Phys. 13, 084 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.13.4.084

    • Semiconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor planar heterostructures for 1D topological superconductivity - Abstract
      • Hybrid structures of semiconducting (SM) nanowires, epitaxially grown superconductors (SC), and ferromagnetic-insulator (FI) layers have been explored experimentally and theoretically as alternative platforms for topological superconductivity at zero magnetic field. Here, we analyze a tripartite SM/FI/SC heterostructure but realized in a planar stacking geometry, where the thin FI layer acts as a spin-polarized tunneling barrier between the SM and the SC. We optimize the system's geometrical parameters using microscopic simulations, finding the range of FI thicknesses for which the hybrid system can be tuned into the topological regime. Within this range, and thanks to the vertical confinement provided by the stacking geometry, trivial and topological phases alternate regularly as the external gate is varied, displaying a hard topological gap that can reach half of the SC one. This is a significant improvement compared to setups using hexagonal nanowires, which show erratic topological regions with typically smaller and softer gaps. Our proposal provides a magnetic field-free planar design for quasi-one-dimensional topological superconductivity with attractive properties for experimental control and scalability.
    • Samuel D. Escribano, Andrea Maiani, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg, Yuval Oreg, Alfredo Levy Yeyati, Elsa Prada, Rubén Seoane Souto
      Journal reference: npj Quantum Materials 7, 81 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41535-022-00489-9

    • Entangling Transmons with Low-Frequency Protected Superconducting Qubits - Abstract
      • Novel qubits with intrinsic noise protection constitute a promising route for improving the coherence of quantum information in superconducting circuits. However, many protected superconducting qubits exhibit relatively low transition frequencies, which could make their integration with conventional transmon circuits challenging. In this work, we propose and study a scheme for entangling a tunable transmon with a Cooper-pair parity-protected qubit, a paradigmatic example of a low-frequency protected qubit that stores quantum information in opposite Cooper-pair parity states on a superconducting island. By tuning the external flux on the transmon, we show that non-computational states can mediate a two-qubit entangling gate that preserves the Cooper-pair parity independent of the detailed pulse sequence. Interestingly, the entangling gate bears similarities to a controlled-phase gate in conventional transmon devices. Hence, our results suggest that standard high-precision gate calibration protocols could be repurposed for operating hybrid qubit devices.
    • Andrea Maiani, Morten Kjaergaard, Constantin Schrade
      Journal reference: PRX Quantum 3, 030329 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PRXQuantum.3.030329

    • Readout of Parafermionic States by Transport Measurements - Abstract
      • Recent experiments have demonstrated the possibility of inducing superconducting pairing into counterpropagating fractional quantum Hall edge modes. This paves the way for the realization of localized parafermionic modes, non-Abelian anyons that share fractional charges in a nonlocal way. We show that, for a pair of isolated parafermions, this joint degree of freedom can be read by conductance measurements across standard metallic electrodes. We propose two complementary setups. We investigate first the transport through a grounded superconductor hosting two interacting parafermions. In the low-energy limit, its conductance peaks reveal their shared fractional charge yielding a three-state telegraph noise for weak quasiparticle poisoning. We then examine the two-terminal electron conductance of a blockaded fractional topological superconductor, which displays a characteristic $e/3$ periodicity of its zero-bias peaks in the deep topological regime, thus signalling the presence of parafermionic modes.
    • Ida E. Nielsen, Karsten Flensberg, Reinhold Egger, Michele Burrello
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 037703 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.037703

    • Higher-order topological semimetals and nodal superconductors with an order-two crystalline symmetry - Abstract
      • Using a systematic relation between topological gapless phases in three dimensions and topological gapped phases in two dimensions, we identify four types of higher-order topological semimetals or nodal superconductors (HOTS), hosting (i) flat zero-energy "Fermi arcs" at crystal hinges, (ii) flat zero-energy hinge arcs coexisting with surface Dirac cones, (iii) chiral or helical hinge modes, or (iv) flat zero-energy hinge arcs connecting nodes only at finite momentum. Bulk-boundary correspondence relates the hinge states to the bulk topology protecting the nodal point or loop. We classify all HOTS for all tenfold-way classes with an order-two crystalline (anti-)symmetry, such as mirror, twofold rotation, or inversion.
    • Sophia Simon, Max Geier, Piet W. Brouwer
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 106, 035105 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.106.035105

    • Two-Dimensional - Abstract
      • We propose an implementation of a two-dimensional $\mathbb{Z}_2$ lattice gauge theory model on a shallow quantum circuit, involving a number of single and two-qubits gates comparable to what can be achieved with present-day and near-future technologies. The ground state preparation is numerically analyzed on a small lattice with a variational quantum algorithm, which requires a small number of parameters to reach high fidelities and can be efficiently scaled up on larger systems. Despite the reduced size of the lattice we consider, a transition between confined and deconfined regimes can be detected by measuring expectation values of Wilson loop operators or the topological entropy. Moreover, if periodic boundary conditions are implemented, the same optimal solution is transferable among all four different topological sectors, without any need for further optimization on the variational parameters. Our work shows that variational quantum algorithms provide a useful technique to be added in the growing toolbox for digital simulations of lattice gauge theories.
    • Luca Lumia, Pietro Torta, Glen B. Mbeng, Giuseppe E. Santoro, Elisa Ercolessi, Michele Burrello, Matteo M. Wauters
      DOI: 10.1103/PRXQuantum.3.020320
      2112.11787v2 [pdf]

    • Matrix product state simulations of quantum quenches and transport in Coulomb blockaded superconducting devices - Abstract
      • Superconducting devices subject to strong charging energy interactions and Coulomb blockade are one of the key elements for the development of nanoelectronics and constitute common building blocks of quantum computation platforms and topological superconducting setups. The study of their transport properties is non-trivial and some of their non-perturbative aspects are hard to capture with the most ordinary techniques. Here we present a matrix product state approach to simulate the real-time dynamics of these systems. We propose a study of their transport based on the analysis of the currents after quantum quenches connecting such devices with external leads. Our method is based on the combination of a Wilson chain construction for the leads and a mean-field BCS description for the superconducting scatterers. In particular, we employ a quasiparticle energy eigenbasis which greatly reduces their entanglement growth and we introduce an auxiliary degree of freedom to encode the device total charge. This approach allows us to treat non-perturbatively both their charging energy and coupling with external electrodes. We show that our construction is able to describe the Coulomb diamond structure of a superconducting dot with subgap states, including its sequential tunneling and cotunneling features. We also study the conductance zero-bias peaks caused by Majorana modes in a blockaded Kitaev chain, and compare our results with common Breit-Wigner predictions.
    • Chia-Min Chung, Matteo M. Wauters, Michele Burrello
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 106, 094308 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.106.094308

    • Control of Andreev Bound States Using Superconducting Phase Texture - Abstract
      • Andreev bound states with opposite phase-inversion asymmetries are observed in local and non-local tunneling spectra at the two ends of a superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor planar Josephson junction in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Spectral signatures agree with a theoretical model, yielding a physical picture in which phase textures in superconducting leads localize and control the position of Andreev bound states in the junction, demonstrating a simple means of controlling the position and size of Andreev states within a planar junction.
    • Abhishek Banerjee, Max Geier, Md Ahnaf Rahman, Daniel S. Sanchez, Candice Thomas, Tian Wang, Michael J. Manfra, Karsten Flensberg, Charles M. Marcus
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.116203
      2205.15690v1 [pdf]

    • Estimation of Convex Polytopes for Automatic Discovery of Charge State Transitions in Quantum Dot Arrays - Abstract
      • In spin based quantum dot arrays, material or fabrication imprecisions affect the behaviour of the device, which must be taken into account when controlling it. This requires measuring the shape of specific convex polytopes. In this work, we present an algorithm that automatically discovers count, shape and size of the facets of a convex polytope from measurements. Results on simulated devices as well as a real 2x2 spin qubit array show that we can reliably find the facets of the convex polytopes, including small facets with sizes on the order of the measurement precision.
    • Oswin Krause, Torbjørn Rasmussen, Bertram Brovang, Anasua Chatterjee, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Electronics 11, 2327 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.3390/electronics11152327

    • Prethermalization and entanglement dynamics in interacting topological pumps - Abstract
      • We investigate the formation of quasisteady states in one-dimensional pumps of interacting fermions at non-integer filling fraction, in the regime where the driving frequency and interaction strength are small compared to the instantaneous single-particle band gap throughout the driving cycle. The system rapidly absorbs energy from the driving field, and approaches a quasisteady state that locally resembles a maximal entropy state subject to the constraint of fixed particle number in each of the system's single-particle Floquet bands. We explore the nature of this quasisteady state through one-body observables including the pumped current and natural orbital occupations, as well as the (many-body) entanglement spectrum and entropy. Potential disorder significantly reduces the amplitude of fluctuations of the quasisteady state current around its universal value, while the lifetime of the quasisteady state remains nearly unaffected for disorder strengths up to the scale of the single-particle band gap. Interestingly, the natural orbital occupations and entanglement entropy display patterns signifying the periodic entangling and disentangling of the system's degrees of freedom over each driving cycle. Moreover, prominent features in the system's time-dependent entanglement spectrum reveal the emergence of new long timescales associated with the equilibration of many-particle correlations.
    • Raffael Gawatz, Ajit C. Balram, Erez Berg, Netanel H. Lindner, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 105, 195118 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.195118

    • Scale-dependent optimized homoepitaxy of InAs(111)A - Abstract
      • We combined in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with the conventional growth characterization methods of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) to simultaneously assess atomic-scale impurities and the larger-scale surface morphology of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown homoepitaxial InAs(111)A. By keeping a constant substrate temperature and indium flux while increasing the As$_2$ flux, we find two differing MBE growth parameter regions for optimized surface roughness on the macro and atomic scale. In particular, we show that a pure step-flow regime with strong suppression of hillock formation can be achieved, even on substrates without intentional offcut. On the other hand, an indium adatom deficient, low atomic defect surface can be observed for a high hillock density. We identify the main remaining point defect on the latter surface by comparison to STM simulations. Furthermore, we provide a method for extracting root-mean-square surface roughness values and discuss their use for surface quality optimization by comparison to scale-dependent, technologically relevant surface metrics. Finally, mapping the separately optimized regions of the growth parameter space should provide a guide for future device engineering involving epitaxial InAs(111)A growth.
    • 2205.11132v1 [pdf]
      Steffen Zelzer, Rajib Batabyal, Derek Dardzinski, Noa Marom, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Peter Krogstrup

    • Local and Nonlocal Transport Spectroscopy in Planar Josephson Junctions - Abstract
      • We report simultaneously acquired local and nonlocal transport spectroscopy in a phase-biased planar Josephson junction based on an epitaxial InAs/Al hybrid two-dimensional heterostructure. Quantum point contacts at the junction ends allow measurement of the 2 x 2 matrix of local and nonlocal tunneling conductances as a function of magnetic field along the junction, phase difference across the junction, and carrier density. A closing and reopening of a gap was observed in both the local and nonlocal tunneling spectra as a function of magnetic field. For particular tunings of junction density, gap reopenings were accompanied by zero-bias conductance peaks (ZBCPs) in local conductances. End-to-end correlation of gap reopening was strong, while correlation of local ZBCPs was weak. A simple, disorder-free model of the device shows comparable conductance matrix behavior associated with a topological phase transition. Phase dependence helps distinguish possible origins of the ZBCPs.
    • A. Banerjee, O. Lesser, M. A. Rahman, C. Thomas, T. Wang, M. J. Manfra, E. Berg, Y. Oreg, Ady Stern, C. M. Marcus
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.096202
      2205.09419v1 [pdf]

    • Josephson Diode Effect in Supercurrent Interferometers - Abstract
      • A Josephson diode is a non-reciprocal circuit element that supports a larger dissipationless supercurrent in one direction than in the other. In this work, we propose and theoretically study a class of Josephson diodes based on supercurrent interferometers containing mesoscopic Josephson junctions, such as point contacts or quantum dots, which are not diodes themselves but possess non-sinusoidal current-phase relations. We show that such Josephson diodes have several important advantages, like being electrically tunable and requiring neither Zeeman splitting nor spin-orbit coupling, only time-reversal breaking by a magnetic flux. We also show that our diodes have a characteristic AC response, revealed by the Shapiro steps. Even the simplest realization of our Josephson diode paradigm that relies on only two junctions can achieve efficiencies of up to $\sim40\%$ and, interestingly, far greater efficiencies are achievable by concatenating multiple interferometer loops.
    • Rubén Seoane Souto, Martin Leijnse, Constantin Schrade
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 129, 267702 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.267702

    • Nonlocal conductance spectroscopy of Andreev bound states in gate-defined InAs/Al nanowires - Abstract
      • The charge character of Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor hybrid nanowire was measured using local and nonlocal tunneling spectroscopy. The device is fabricated using an epitaxial InAs/Al two-dimensional heterostructure with several gate-defined side probes. ABSs are found to oscillate around zero as a function of gate voltage, with modifications of their charge consistent with theoretical expectations for the total Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer (BCS) charge of ABSs.
    • Andreas Pöschl, Alisa Danilenko, Deividas Sabonis, Kaur Kristjuhan, Tyler Lindemann, Candice Thomas, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 106, L241301 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.106.L241301

    • Electronic Transport in Double-Nanowire Superconducting Islands with Multiple Terminals - Abstract
      • We characterize in-situ grown parallel nanowires bridged by a superconducting island. The magnetic-field and temperature dependence of Coulomb blockade peaks measured across different pairs of nanowire ends are consistent with a sub-gap state extended over the hybrid parallel-nanowire island. Being gate-tunable, accessible by multiple terminals and free of quasiparticle poisoning, these nanowires show promise for the implementation of several proposals that rely on parallel nanowire platforms.
    • Alexandros Vekris, Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Thomas Kanne, Thor Hvid-Olsen, Mikelis Marnauza, Dags Olsteins, Matteo M. Wauters, Michele Burrello, Jesper Nygård, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen
      DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01161
      2203.09213v1 [pdf]

    • Fusion rules in a Majorana single-charge transistor - Abstract
      • A demonstration of the theoretically predicted non-abelian properties of Majorana bound states (MBSs) would constitute a definite proof of a topological superconducting phase. Alongside the nontrivial braiding statistics, the fusion rules are fundamental properties of all non-abelian anyons. In this work, we propose and theoretically analyze a way to demonstrate MBS fusion rules in a Majorana single-charge transistor. Our proposal reduces both the number of operations and the device complexity compared to previous designs. Furthermore, we show that the fusion protocol can be adapted to pump a quantized amount of charge in each cycle, providing a straightforward method to detect fusion rules through a DC current measurement. We analyze the protocol numerically and analytically and show that the required operational timescales and expected measurement signals are within experimental capabilities in various superconductor-semiconductor hybrid platforms.
    • R. Seoane Souto, M. Leijnse
      Journal reference: SciPost Phys. 12, 161 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.21468/SciPostPhys.12.5.161

    • Gate-Tunable Transmon Using Selective-Area-Grown Superconductor-Semiconductor Hybrid Structures on Silicon - Abstract
      • We present a gate-voltage tunable transmon qubit (gatemon) based on planar InAs nanowires that are selectively grown on a high resistivity silicon substrate using III-V buffer layers. We show that low loss superconducting resonators with an internal quality of $2\times 10^5$ can readily be realized using these substrates after the removal of buffer layers. We demonstrate coherent control and readout of a gatemon device with a relaxation time, $T_{1}\approx 700\,\mathrm{ns}$, and dephasing times, $T_2^{\ast}\approx 20\,\mathrm{ns}$ and $T_{\mathrm{2,echo}} \approx 1.3\,\mathrm{\mu s}$. Further, we infer a high junction transparency of $0.4 - 0.9$ from an analysis of the qubit anharmonicity.
    • A. Hertel, M. Eichinger, L. O. Andersen, D. M. T. van Zanten, S. Kallatt, P. Scarlino, A. Kringhøj, J. M. Chavez-Garcia, G. C. Gardner, S. Gronin, M. J. Manfra, A. Gyenis, M. Kjaergaard, C. M. Marcus, K. D. Petersson
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 18, 034042 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.18.034042

    • Parity switching in a full-shell superconductor-semiconductor nanowire qubit - Abstract
      • The rate of charge-parity switching in a full-shell superconductor-semiconductor nanowire qubit is measured by directly monitoring the dispersive shift of a readout resonator. At zero magnetic field, the measured switching time scale $T_P$ is on the order of 100 ms. Two-tone spectroscopy data post-selected on charge-parity is demonstrated. With increasing temperature or magnetic field, TP is at first constant, then exponentially suppressed, consistent with a model that includes both non-equilibrium and thermally activated quasiparticles. As TP is suppressed, qubit lifetime T1 also decreases. The long $T_P\sim 0.1$ s at zero field is promising for future development of qubits based on hybrid nanowires.
    • 2202.05974v1 [pdf]
      O. Erlandsson, D. Sabonis, A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus

    • Electrostatic control of quasiparticle poisoning in a hybrid semiconductor-superconductor island - Abstract
      • The performance of superconducting devices is often degraded by the uncontrolled appearance and disappearance of quasiparticles, a process known as poisoning. We demonstrate electrostatic control of quasiparticle poisoning in the form of single-charge tunneling across a fixed barrier onto a Coulomb island in an InAs/Al hybrid nanowire. High-bandwidth charge sensing was used to monitor charge occupancy of the island across Coulomb blockade peaks, where tunneling rates were maximal, and Coulomb valleys, where tunneling was absent. Electrostatic gates changed on-peak tunneling rates by two orders of magnitude for a barrier with fixed normal-state resistance, which we attribute to gate dependence of the size and softness of the induced superconducting gap on the island, corroborated by separate density-of-states measurements. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of tunneling rates are also investigated.
    • 2202.05970v1 [pdf]
      H. Q. Nguyen, D. Sabonis, D. Razmadze, E. T. Mannila, V. F. Maisi, D. M. T. van Zanten, E. C. T. O'Farrell, P. Krogstrup, F. Kuemmeth, J. P. Pekola, C. M. Marcus

    • Doubling the mobility of InAs/InGaAs selective area grown nanowires - Abstract
      • Selective area growth (SAG) of nanowires and networks promise a route toward scalable electronics, photonics and quantum devices based on III-V semiconductor materials. The potential of high-mobility SAG nanowires however is not yet fully realized, since interfacial roughness, misfit dislocations at the nanowire/substrate interface and non-uniform composition due to material intermixing all scatter electrons. Here, we explore SAG of highly lattice-mismatched InAs nanowires on insulating GaAs(001) substrates and address these key challenges. Atomically smooth nanowire/substrate interfaces are achieved with the use of atomic hydrogen (a-H) as an alternative to conventional thermal annealing for the native oxide removal. The problem of high lattice mismatch is addressed through an In$_x$Ga$_{1-x}$As buffer layer introduced between the InAs transport channel and the GaAs substrate. The Ga-In material intermixing observed in both the buffer layer and the channel is inhibited via careful tuning of the growth temperature. Performing scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis along with low-temperature transport measurements we show that optimized In-rich buffer layers promote high quality InAs transport channels with the field-effect electron mobility over~10000~cm$^2$V$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. This is twice as high as for non-optimized samples and among the highest reported for InAs selective area grown nanostructures.
    • 2103.15971v2 [pdf]
      Daria V. Beznasyuk, Sara Martí-Sánchez, Jung-Hyun Kang, Rawa Tanta, Mohana Rajpalke, Tomaš Stankevič, Anna Wulff Christensen, Maria Chiara Spadaro, Roberto Bergamaschini, Nikhil N. Maka, Christian Emanuel N. Petersen, Damon J. Carrad, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Jordi Arbiol, Peter Krogstrup

    • Evidence for spin-polarized bound states in semiconductor–superconductor–ferromagnetic-insulator islands - Abstract
      • We report Coulomb blockade transport studies of semiconducting InAs nanowires grown with epitaxial superconducting Al and ferromagnetic insulator EuS on overlapping facets. Comparing experiment to a theoretical model, we associate cotunneling features in even-odd bias spectra with spin-polarized Andreev levels. Results are consistent with zero-field spin splitting exceeding the induced superconducting gap. Energies of subgap states are tunable on either side of zero via electrostatic gates.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, R. Seoane Souto, Y. Liu, P. Krogstrup, K. Flensberg, M. Leijnse, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 105, L041304 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.L041304

    • Demonstrating Majorana non-Abelian properties using fast adiabatic charge transfer - Abstract
      • Demonstration of Majorana non-Abelian properties is a major challenge in the field of topological superconductivity. In this work, we propose a minimal device and protocol for testing non-Abelian properties using charge-transfer operations between a quantum dot and two Majorana bound states combined with reading the parity state using a second dot. We use an adiabatic perturbation theory to find fast adiabatic paths to perform operations and to account for nonadiabatic errors. We find the ideal parameter sweep and a region in parameter space which reduces the charge-transfer operation time 1-2 orders of magnitude with respect to constant velocity driving. Using realistic parameters, we estimate that the lower bound for the time scale can be reduced to $\sim10$ ns. Deviations from the ideal parameters lead to the accumulation of an undesired dynamical phase, affecting the outcome of the proposed protocol. We furthermore suggest to reduce the influence from the dynamical phase using a flux echo. The echo protocol is based on the $4\pi$-periodicity of the topological state, absent for trivial bound states.
    • Svend Krøjer, Rubén Seoane Souto, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 105, 045425 (2022) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.045425

    • Excitations in a superconducting Coulombic energy gap - Abstract
      • Cooper pairing and Coulomb repulsion are antagonists, producing distinct energy gaps in superconductors and Mott insulators. When a superconductor exchanges unpaired electrons with a quantum dot, its gap is populated by a pair of electron-hole symmetric Yu-Shiba-Rusinov excitations between doublet and singlet many-body states. The fate of these excitations in the presence of a strong Coulomb repulsion in the superconductor is unknown, but of importance in applications such as topological superconducting qubits and multi-channel impurity models. Here we couple a quantum dot to a superconducting island with a tunable Coulomb repulsion. We show that a strong Coulomb repulsion changes the singlet many-body state into a two-body state. It also breaks the electron-hole energy symmetry of the excitations, which thereby lose their Yu-Shiba-Rusinov character.
    • Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Alexandros Vekris, Luka Pavešič, Peter Krogstrup, Rok Žitko, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-29634-5
      2101.10794v3 [pdf]

    • Nonlocal signatures of hybridization between quantum dot and Andreev bound states - Abstract
      • We investigate local and nonlocal signatures of hybridization between a quantum dot state and an extended Andreev bound state (ABS) in a gate-defined InAs nanowire with multiple side probes. When a quantum dot in one of the side probes was hybridized with an ABS in the nanowire, a characteristic spectroscopic pattern was observed both locally, i.e., in the probe with the quantum dot, and nonlocally, in the tunnel conductance of a remote probe. Nonlocal signatures of hybridization reveal the extended nature of the ABS.
    • Andreas Pöschl, Alisa Danilenko, Deividas Sabonis, Kaur Kristjuhan, Tyler Lindemann, Candice Thomas, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.106.L161301
      2201.03687v1 [pdf]

    • Signatures of a topological phase transition in a planar Josephson junction - Abstract
      • A growing body of work suggests that planar Josephson junctions fabricated using superconducting hybrid materials provide a highly controllable route toward one-dimensional topological superconductivity. Among the experimental controls are in-plane magnetic field, phase difference across the junction, and carrier density set by electrostatic gate voltages. Here, we investigate planar Josephson junctions with an improved design based on an epitaxial InAs/Al heterostructure, embedded in a superconducting loop, probed with integrated quantum point contacts (QPCs) at both ends of the junction. For particular ranges of in-plane field and gate voltages, a closing and reopening of the superconducting gap is observed, along with a zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) that appears upon reopening of the gap. Consistency with a simple theoretical model supports the interpretation of a topological phase transition. While gap closings and reopenings generally occurred together at the two ends of the junction, the height, shape, and even presence of ZBCPs typically differed between the ends, presumably due to disorder and variation of couplings to local probes.
    • A. Banerjee, O. Lesser, M. A. Rahman, H. -R. Wang, M. -R. Li, A. Kringhøj, A. M. Whiticar, A. C. C. Drachmann, C. Thomas, T. Wang, M. J. Manfra, E. Berg, Y. Oreg, Ady Stern, C. M. Marcus
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.107.245304
      2201.03453v1 [pdf]

  • 2021
    • Protected solid-state qubits - Abstract
      • The implementation of large-scale fault-tolerant quantum computers calls for the integration of millions of physical qubits, with error rates of physical qubits significantly below 1%. This outstanding engineering challenge may benefit from emerging qubits that are protected from dominating noise sources in the qubits' environment. In addition to different noise reduction techniques, protective approaches typically encode qubits in global or local decoherence-free subspaces, or in dynamical sweet spots of driven systems. We exemplify such protective qubits by reviewing the state-of-art in protected solid-state qubits based on semiconductors, superconductors, and hybrid devices.
    • Jeroen Danon, Anasua Chatterjee, András Gyenis, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 119, 260502 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/5.0073945

    • Inductive microwave response of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states - Abstract
      • We calculate the frequency-dependent admittance of a phase-biased Josephson junction spanning a magnetic impurity or a spinful Coulomb-blockaded quantum dot. The local magnetic moment gives rise to Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states, which govern the sub-gap absorption as well as the inductive response. We model the system by a superconducting spin-polarized exchange-cotunnel junction and calculate the linear current response to an AC bias voltage, including its dependence on phase bias as well as particle-hole, and source-drain coupling asymmetry. The corresponding inductive admittance is analyzed and compared to results of a zero-bandwidth, as well as an infinite-gap approximation to the superconducting Anderson model. All three approaches capture the interaction-induced $0-\pi$ transition, which is reflected as a discontinuity in the adiabatic inductive response.
    • Cecilie Hermansen, Alfredo Levy Yeyati, Jens Paaske
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.054503
      2112.11261v1 [pdf]

    • Topological van Hove singularities at phase transitions in Weyl metals - Abstract
      • We show that in three-dimensional (3D) topological metals, a subset of the van Hove singularities of the density of states sits exactly at the transitions between topological and trivial gapless phases. We may refer to these as topological van Hove singularities. By investigating two minimal models, we show that they originate from energy saddle points located between Weyl points with opposite chiralities, and we illustrate their topological nature through their magnetotransport properties in the ballistic regime. We exemplify the relation between van Hove singularities and topological phase transitions in Weyl systems by analyzing the 3D Hofstadter model, which offers a simple and interesting playground to consider different kinds of Weyl metals and to understand the features of their density of states. In this model, as a function of the magnetic flux, the occurrence of topological van Hove singularities can be explicitly checked.
    • Pierpaolo Fontana, Michele Burrello, Andrea Trombettoni
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 104, 195127 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.104.195127

    • Scalable platform for nanocrystal-based quantum electronics - Abstract
      • Unlocking the full potential of nanocrystals in electronic devices requires scalable and deterministic manufacturing techniques. A platform offering promising alternative paths to scalable production is microtomy, the technique of cutting thin lamellae with large areas containing embedded nanostructures. This platform has so far not been used for fabrication of electronic quantum devices. Here, we combine microtomy with vapor-liquid-solid growth of III/V nanowires to create a scalable platform that can deterministically transfer large arrays of single and fused nanocrystals - offering single unit control and free choice of target substrate. We fabricate electronic devices on cross-sectioned InAs nanowires with good yield and demonstrate their ability to exhibit quantum phenomena such as conductance quantization, single electron charging, and wave interference. Finally, we devise how the platform can host rationally designed semiconductor/superconductor networks relevant for emerging quantum technologies.
    • 2111.05098v1 [pdf]
      Joachim E. Sestoft, Aske N. Gejl, Thomas Kanne, Rasmus D. Schlosser, Daniel Ross, Daniel Kjær, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård

    • Quasiperiodic Floquet-Thouless Energy Pump - Abstract
      • Recent work [M. H. Kolodrubetz et al, PRL 120, 150601] has demonstrated that periodically driven one-dimensional fermionic systems can support quantized energy pumping resulting from an adiabatic modulation of a second parameter. In this work, we explore this topological Floquet-Thouless energy pump in the quasiperiodic driving regime where the parametric driving occurs at finite frequency. We show that quantization of energy pumping persists for finite ramping frequencies, as long as they are incommensurate with the driving frequency, and the system remains localized by spatial disorder. Thus, the topological Floquet-Thouless energy pump is stable beyond the adiabatic regime, occupying a finite region of parameter space. Phase transitions away from these topological phases are accompanied by delocalization in position space, photon number (energy) space, or both. Using a dimensional reduction scheme, we demonstrate that a related phase can be realized with a cavity-qubit system driven by two incommensurate modes.
    • Frederik Nathan, Rongchun Ge, Snir Gazit, Mark S. Rudner, Michael Kolodrubetz
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 166804 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.166804

    • Simultaneous Operations in a Two-Dimensional Array of Singlet-Triplet Qubits - Abstract
      • In many physical approaches to quantum computation, error-correction schemes assume the ability to form two-dimensional qubit arrays with nearest-neighbor couplings and parallel operations at multiple qubit sites. While semiconductor spin qubits exhibit long coherence times relative to their operation speed and single-qubit fidelities above error correction thresholds, multiqubit operations in two-dimensional arrays have been limited by fabrication, operation, and readout challenges. We present a two-by-two array of four singlet-triplet qubits in gallium arsenide and show simultaneous coherent operations and four-qubit measurements via exchange oscillations and frequency-multiplexed single-shot measurements. A larger multielectron quantum dot is fabricated in the center of the array as a tunable interqubit link, which we utilize to demonstrate coherent spin exchange with selected qubits. Our techniques are extensible to other materials, indicating a path towards quantum processors with gate-controlled spin qubits.
    • Federico Fedele, Anasua Chatterjee, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: PRX Quantum 2, 040306 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PRXQuantum.2.040306

    • Dynamical vortices in electron-phonon superconductors - Abstract
      • We analyze the structure of an $s-$wave superconducting gap in systems with electron-phonon attraction and electron-electron repulsion. Earlier works have found that superconductivity develops despite strong repulsion, but the gap, $\Delta (\omega_m)$, necessarily changes sign along the Matsubara axis. We analyze the sign-changing gap function from a topological perspective using the knowledge that a nodal point of $\Delta (\omega_m)$ is the center of dynamical vortex. We consider two models with different cutoffs for the repulsive interaction and trace the vortex positions along the Matsubara axis and in the upper frequency half plane upon changing the relative strength of the attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction. We discuss how the presence of dynamical vortices affects the gap structure along the real axis, detectable in ARPES experiments.
    • Morten H. Christensen, Andrey V. Chubukov
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 104, 140501 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.104.L140501

    • Multilevel effects in quantum dot based parity-to-charge conversion of Majorana box qubits - Abstract
      • Quantum-dot based parity-to-charge conversion is a promising method for reading out quantum information encoded nonlocally into pairs of Majorana zero modes. To obtain a sizable parity-to-charge visibility, it is crucial to tune the relative phase of the tunnel couplings between the dot and the Majorana modes appropriately. However, in the presence of multiple quasi-degenerate dot orbitals, it is in general not experimentally feasible to tune all couplings individually. This paper shows that such configurations could make it difficult to avoid a destructive multi-orbital interference effect that substantially reduces the read-out visibility. We analyze this effect using a Lindblad quantum master equation. This exposes how the experimentally relevant system parameters enhance or suppress the visibility when strong charging energy, measurement dissipation and, most importantly, multi-orbital interference is accounted for. In particular, we find that an intermediate-time readout could mitigate some of the interference-related visibility reductions affecting the stationary limit.
    • Jens Schulenborg, Michele Burrello, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 103, 245407 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.103.245407

    • Asymmetric Little–Parks oscillations in full shell double nanowires - Abstract
      • Little-Parks oscillations of a hollow superconducting cylinder are of interest for flux-driven topological superconductivity in single Rashba nanowires. The oscillations are typically symmetric in the orientation of the applied magnetic flux. Using double InAs nanowires coated by an epitaxial superconducting Al shell which, despite the non-centro-symmetric geometry, behaves effectively as one hollow cylinder, we demonstrate that a small misalignment of the applied parallel field with respect to the axis of the nanowires can produce field-asymmetric Little-Parks oscillations. These are revealed by the simultaneous application of a magnetic field perpendicular to the misaligned parallel field direction. The asymmetry occurs in both the destructive regime, in which superconductivity is destroyed for half-integer quanta of flux through the shell, and in the non-destructive regime, where superconductivity is depressed but not fully destroyed at these flux values.
    • Alexandros Vekris, Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Joeri de Bruijckere, Sara Lorić, Thomas Kanne, Mikelis Marnauza, Dags Olsteins, Jesper Nygård, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen
      Journal reference: Scientific Reports 11, 19034 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-97780-9

    • Comparing tunneling spectroscopy and charge sensing of Andreev bound states in a semiconductor-superconductor hybrid nanowire structure - Abstract
      • Transport studies of Andreev bound states (ABSs) are complicated by the interplay of charging effects and superconductivity. Here, we compare transport approaches to ABS spectroscopy in a semiconductor-superconductor island to a charge-sensing approach based on an integrated radio-frequency single-electron transistor. Consistency of the methods demonstrates that fast, non-invasive charge sensing allows accurate quantitative measurement of ABSs while eluding some complexities of transport.
    • 2105.08871v1 [pdf]
      Deividas Sabonis, David van Zanten, Judith Suter, Torsten Karzig, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Jukka I. Väyrynen, Eoin O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus

    • Direct transport between superconducting subgap states in a double quantum dot - Abstract
      • We demonstrate direct transport between two opposing sets of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) subgap states realized in a double quantum dot. This sub-gap transport relies on intrinsic quasiparticle relaxation, but the tunability of the device allows us to explore also an additional relaxation mechanism based on charge transferring Andreev reflections. The transition between these two relaxation regimes is identified in the experiment as a marked gate-induced stepwise change in conductance. We present a transport calculation, including YSR bound states and multiple Andreev reflections alongside with quasiparticle relaxation, due to a weak tunnel coupling to a nearby normal metal, and obtain excellent agreement with the data.
    • Gorm Ole Steffensen, Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Alexandros Vekris, Peter Krogstrup, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård, Alfredo Levy Yeyati, Jens Paaske
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.105.L161302
      2105.06815v1 [pdf]

    • Electrical Properties of Selective-Area-Grown Superconductor-Semiconductor Hybrid Structures on Silicon - Abstract
      • We present a superconductor-semiconductor material system that is both scalable and monolithically integrated on a silicon substrate. It uses selective area growth of Al-InAs hybrid structures on a planar III-V buffer layer, grown directly on a high resistivity silicon substrate. We characterized the electrical properties of this material system at millikelvin temperatures and observed a high average field-effect mobility of $\mu \approx 3200\,\mathrm{cm^2/Vs}$ for the InAs channel, and a hard induced superconducting gap. Josephson junctions exhibited a high interface transmission, $\mathcal{T} \approx 0.75 $, gate voltage tunable switching current with a product of critical current and normal state resistance, $I_{\mathrm{C}}R_{\mathrm{N}} \approx 83\,\mathrm{\mu V}$, and signatures of multiple Andreev reflections. These results pave the way for scalable and high coherent gate voltage tunable transmon devices and other superconductor-semiconductor hybrids fabricated directly on silicon.
    • A. Hertel, L. O. Andersen, D. M. T. van Zanten, M. Eichinger, P. Scarlino, S. Yadav, J. Karthik, S. Gronin, G. C. Gardner, M. J. Manfra, C. M. Marcus, K. D. Petersson
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 16, 044015 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.16.044015

    • Josephson junctions in double nanowires bridged by - Abstract
      • We characterize parallel double quantum dot Josephson junctions based on closely-grown double nanowires bridged by in-situ deposited superconductors. The parallel double dot behavior occurs despite the closeness of the nanowires and the potential risk of nanowire clamping during growth. By tuning the charge filling and lead couplings, we map out the simplest parallel double quantum dot Yu-Shiba-Rusinov phase diagram. Our quasi-independent two-wire hybrids show promise for the realization of exotic topological phases.
    • Alexandros Vekris, Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Thomas Kanne, Mikelis Marnauza, Dags Olsteins, Furong Fan, Xiaobo Li, Thor Hvid-Olsen, Xiaohui Qiu, Hongqi Xu, Jesper Nygård, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Research 3, 033240 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.033240

    • Andreev interference in the surface accumulation layer of half-shell InAsSb/Al hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • Understanding the spatial distribution of charge carriers in III-V nanowires proximity coupled to superconductors is important for the design and interpretation of experiments based on hybrid quantum devices. In this letter, the gate-dependent surface accumulation layer of InAsSb/Al nanowires was studied by means of Andreev interference in a parallel magnetic field. Both uniform hybrid nanowires and devices featuring a short Josephson junction fabricated by shadow lithography, exhibited periodic modulation of the switching current. The period corresponds to a flux quantum through the nanowire diameter and is consistent with Andreev bound states occupying a cylindrical surface accumulation layer. The spatial distribution was tunable by a gate potential as expected from electrostatic models.
    • 2104.00723v1 [pdf]
      Lukas Stampfer, Damon J. Carrad, Dags Olsteins, Christian E. N. Petersen, Sabbir A. Khan, Peter Krogstrup, Thomas S. Jespersen

    • Three-phase Majorana zero modes at tiny magnetic fields - Abstract
      • Proposals for realizing Majorana fermions in condensed matter systems typically rely on magnetic fields, which degrade the proximitizing superconductor and plague the Majoranas' detection. We propose an alternative scheme to realize Majoranas based only on phase-biased superconductors. The phases (at least three of them) can be biased by a tiny magnetic field threading macroscopic superconducting loops, focusing and enhancing the effect of the magnetic field onto the junction, or by supercurrents. We show how a combination of the superconducting phase winding and the spin-orbit phase induced in closed loops (Aharonov-Casher effect) facilitates a topological superconducting state with Majorana end states. We demontrate this scheme by an analytically tractable model as well as simulations of realistic setups comprising only conventional materials.
    • Omri Lesser, Karsten Flensberg, Felix von Oppen, Yuval Oreg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 103, 121116 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.103.L121116

    • Double nanowires for hybrid quantum devices - Abstract
      • Parallel one-dimensional semiconductor channels connected by a superconducting strip constitute the core platform in several recent quantum device proposals that rely e.g. on Andreev processes or topological effects. In order to realize these proposals, the actual material systems must have high crystalline purity and the coupling between the different elements should be controllable in terms of their interfaces and geometry. We present a strategy for synthesizing double InAs nanowires by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism using III-V molecular beam epitaxy. A superconducting layer is deposited onto nanowires without breaking vacuum, ensuring pristine interfaces between the superconductor and the two semiconductor nanowires. The method allows for a high yield of merged as well as separate parallel nanowires, with full or half-shell superconductor coatings. We demonstrate their utility in complex quantum devices by electron transport measurements.
    • 2103.13938v1 [pdf]
      Thomas Kanne, Dags Olsteins, Mikelis Marnauza, Alexandros Vekris, Juan Carlos Estrada Saldana, Sara Loric, Rasmus D. Schlosser, Daniel Ross, Szabolcs Csonka, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård

    • Topological superconductivity in semiconductor–superconductor–magnetic-insulator heterostructures - Abstract
      • Hybrid superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures are promising platforms for realizing topological superconductors and exploring Majorana bound states physics. Motivated by recent experimental progress, we theoretically study how magnetic insulators offer an alternative to the use of external magnetic fields for reaching the topological regime. We consider different setups, where: (1) the magnetic insulator induces an exchange field in the superconductor, which leads to a splitting in the semiconductor by proximity effect, and (2) the magnetic insulator acts as a spin-filter tunnel barrier between the superconductor and the semiconductor. We show that the spin splitting in the superconductor alone cannot induce a topological transition in the semiconductor. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use a spin-filter barrier that enhances the magnetic exchange and provides a mechanism for a topological phase transition. Moreover, the spin-dependent tunneling introduces a strong dependence on the band alignment, which can be crucial in quantum-confined systems. This mechanism opens up a route towards networks of topological wires with fewer constraints on device geometry compared to previous devices that require external magnetic fields.
    • A. Maiani, R. Seoane Souto, M. Leijnse, K. Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 103, 104508 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.103.104508

    • Engineered platforms for topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes - Abstract
      • Among the major approaches that are being pursued for realizing quantum bits, the Majorana-based platform has been the most recent to be launched. It attempts to realize qubits which store quantum information in a topologically-protected manner. The quantum information is protected by its nonlocal storage in localized and well-separated Majorana zero modes, and manipulated by exploiting their nonabelian quantum exchange properties. Realizing these topological qubits is experimentally challenging, requiring superconductivity, helical electrons (created by spin-orbit coupling) and breaking of time reversal symmetry to all cooperate in an uncomfortable alliance. Over the past decade, several candidate material systems for realizing Majorana-based topological qubits have been explored, and there is accumulating, though still debated, evidence that zero modes are indeed being realized. This paper reviews the basic physical principles on which these approaches are based, the material systems that are being developed, and the current state of the field. We highlight both the progress made and the challenges that still need to be overcome.
    • 2103.05548v1 [pdf]
      Karsten Flensberg, Felix von Oppen, Ady Stern

    • nan - Abstract
      • Under the perspective of realizing analog quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories, ladder geometries offer an intriguing playground, relevant for ultracold atom experiments. Here, we investigate Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories defined in two-leg ladders. We consider a model that includes both gauge boson and Higgs matter degrees of freedom with local $\mathbb{Z}_N$ gauge symmetries. We study its phase diagram based on both an effective low-energy field theory and density matrix renormalization group simulations. For $N\ge 5$, an extended gapless Coulomb phase emerges, which is separated by a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from the surrounding gapped phase. Besides the traditional confined and Higgs regimes, we also observe a novel quadrupolar region, originated by the ladder geometry.
    • Jens Nyhegn, Chia-Min Chung, Michele Burrello
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Research 3, 013133 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.013133

    • Zeeman-driven parity transitions in an Andreev quantum dot - Abstract
      • The Andreev spectrum of a quantum dot embedded in a hybrid semiconductor-superconductor interferometer can be modulated by electrostatic gating, magnetic flux through the interferometer, and Zeeman splitting from in-plane magnetic field. We demonstrate parity transitions in the embedded quantum dot system, and show that the Zeeman-driven transition is accompanied by a 0-{\pi} transition in the superconducting phase across the dot. We further demonstrate that flux through the interferometer modulates both dot parity and 0-{\pi} transitions.
    • A. M. Whiticar, A. Fornieri, A. Banerjee, A. C. C. Drachmann, S. Gronin, G. C. Gardner, T. Lindemann, M. J. Manfra, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 103, 245308 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.103.245308

    • Roadmap on quantum nanotechnologies - Abstract
      • Quantum phenomena are typically observable at length and time scales smaller than those of our everyday experience, often involving individual particles or excitations. The past few decades have seen a revolution in the ability to structure matter at the nanoscale, and experiments at the single particle level have become commonplace. This has opened wide new avenues for exploring and harnessing quantum mechanical effects in condensed matter. These quantum phenomena, in turn, have the potential to revolutionize the way we communicate, compute and probe the nanoscale world. Here, we review developments in key areas of quantum research in light of the nanotechnologies that enable them, with a view to what the future holds. Materials and devices with nanoscale features are used for quantum metrology and sensing, as building blocks for quantum computing, and as sources and detectors for quantum communication. They enable explorations of quantum behaviour and unconventional states in nano- and opto-mechanical systems, low-dimensional systems, molecular devices, nano-plasmonics, quantum electrodynamics, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and more. This rapidly expanding intersection of nanotechnology and quantum science/technology is mutually beneficial to both fields, laying claim to some of the most exciting scientific leaps of the last decade, with more on the horizon.
    • Arne Laucht, Frank Hohls, Niels Ubbelohde, M Fernando Gonzalez-Zalba, David J Reilly, Søren Stobbe, Tim Schröder, Pasquale Scarlino, Jonne V Koski, Andrew Dzurak, Chih-Hwan Yang, Jun Yoneda, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Hendrik Bluhm, Jarryd Pla, Charles Hill, Joe Salfi, Akira Oiwa, Juha T Muhonen, Ewold Verhagen, Matthew D LaHaye, Hyun Ho Kim, Adam W Tsen, Dimitrie Culcer, Attila Geresdi, Jan A Mol, Varun Mohan, Prashant K Jain, Jonathan Baugh
      Journal reference: Nanotechnology 32, 162003 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/abb333

    • Magnetic-Field-Compatible Superconducting Transmon Qubit - Abstract
      • We present a hybrid semiconductor-based superconducting qubit device which remains coherent at magnetic fields up to 1 T. The qubit transition frequency exhibits periodic oscillations with magnetic field, consistent with interference effects due to the magnetic flux threading the cross section of the proximitized semiconductor nanowire junction. As induced superconductivity revives, additional coherent modes emerge at high magnetic fields, which we attribute to the interaction of the qubit and low-energy Andreev states.
    • A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, O. Erlandsson, W. Uilhoorn, J. G. Kroll, M. Hesselberg, R. P. G. McNeil, P. Krogstrup, L. Casparis, C. M. Marcus, K. D. Petersson
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 15, 054001 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.15.054001

    • Roadmap on quantum nanotechnologies - Abstract
      • Gate-defined quantum dots in gallium arsenide (GaAs) have been used extensively for pioneering spin qubit devices due to the relative simplicity of fabrication and favourable electronic properties such as a single conduction band valley, a small effective mass, and stable dopants. GaAs spin qubits are readily produced in many labs and are currently studied for various applications, including entanglement, quantum non-demolition measurements, automatic tuning, multi-dot arrays, coherent exchange coupling, and teleportation. Even while much attention is shifting to other materials, GaAs devices will likely remain a workhorse for proof-of-concept quantum information processing and solid-state experiments.
    • Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Hendrik Bluhm
      Journal reference: Nanotechnology 32, 162003 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/abb333

    • Anodic oxidation of epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor hybrids - Abstract
      • We demonstrate a new fabrication process for hybrid semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures based on anodic oxidation (AO), allowing controlled thinning of epitaxial Al films. Structural and transport studies of oxidized epitaxial Al films grown on insulating GaAs substrates reveal spatial non-uniformity and enhanced critical temperature and magnetic fields. Oxidation of epitaxial Al on hybrid InAs heterostructures with a conducting quantum well show similarly enhanced superconducting properties transferred to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by proximity effect, with critical perpendicular magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. An insulating AlOx film, that passivates the heterostructure from exposure to air, is obtained by complete oxidation of the Al. It simultaneously removes the need to strip Al which damages the underlying semiconductor. AO passivation yielded 2DEG mobilities two times higher than similar devices with Al removed by wet etching. An AO-passivated Hall bar showed quantum Hall features emerging at a transverse field of 2.5 T, below the critical transverse field of thinned films, eventually allowing transparent coupling of quantum Hall effect and superconductivity. AO thinning and passivation are compatible with standard lithographic techniques, giving lateral resolution below <50 nm. We demonstrate local patterning of AO by realizing a semiconductor-based Josephson junction operating up to 0.3 T perpendicular.
    • Asbjørn C. C. Drachmann, Rosa E. Diaz, Candice Thomas, Henri J. Suominen, Alexander M. Whiticar, Antonio Fornieri, Sergei Gronin, Tiantian Wang, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Alex R. Hamilton, Fabrizio Nichele, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 5, 013805 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.5.013805

    • Andreev Modes from Phase Winding in a Full-Shell Nanowire-Based Transmon - Abstract
      • We investigate transmon qubits made from semiconductor nanowires with a fully surrounding superconducting shell. In the regime of reentrant superconductivity associated with the destructive Little-Parks effect, numerous coherent transitions are observed in the first reentrant lobe, where the shell carries 2{\pi} winding of superconducting phase, and are absent in the zeroth lobe. As junction density was increased by gate voltage, qubit coherence was suppressed then lost in the first lobe. These observations and numerical simulations highlight the role of winding-induced Andreev states in the junction.
    • A. Kringhøj, G. W. Winkler, T. W. Larsen, D. Sabonis, O. Erlandsson, P. Krogstrup, B. van Heck, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 126, 047701 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.047701

    • Spatially dispersing Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in the unconventional superconductor FeTe0.55Se0.45 - Abstract
      • By using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) we find and characterize dispersive, energy-symmetric in-gap states in the iron-based superconductor $\mathrm{FeTe}_{0.55}\mathrm{Se}_{0.45}$, a material that exhibits signatures of topological superconductivity, and Majorana bound states at vortex cores or at impurity locations. We use a superconducting STM tip for enhanced energy resolution, which enables us to show that impurity states can be tuned through the Fermi level with varying tip-sample distance. We find that the impurity state is of the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) type, and argue that the energy shift is caused by the low superfluid density in $\mathrm{FeTe}_{0.55}\mathrm{Se}_{0.45}$, which allows the electric field of the tip to slightly penetrate the sample. We model the newly introduced tip-gating scenario within the single-impurity Anderson model and find good agreement to the experimental data.
    • Damianos Chatzopoulos, Doohee Cho, Koen M. Bastiaans, Gorm O. Steffensen, Damian Bouwmeester, Alireza Akbari, Genda Gu, Jens Paaske, Brian M. Andersen, Milan P. Allan
      Journal reference: Nature Communications 12, 298 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-20529-x

    • Closing of the induced gap in a hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire - Abstract
      • Hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires are predicted to undergo a field-induced phase transition from a trivial to a topological superconductor, marked by the closure and re-opening of the excitation gap, followed by the emergence of Majorana bound states at the nanowire ends. Many local density-of-states measurements have reported signatures of the topological phase, however this interpretation has been challenged by alternative explanations. Here, by measuring nonlocal conductance, we identify the closure of the excitation gap in the bulk of the semiconductor before the emergence of zero-bias peaks. This observation is inconsistent with scenarios where zero-bias peaks occur due to end-states with a trivially gapped bulk, which have been extensively considered in the theoretical and experimental literature. We observe that after the gap closes, nonlocal signals fluctuate strongly and persist irrespective of the presence of local-conductance zero-bias peaks. Thus, our observations are also incompatible with a simple picture of clean topological superconductivity. This work presents a new experimental approach for probing the spatial extent of states in Majorana wires, and reveals the presence of a regime with a continuum of spatially extended states and uncorrelated zero-bias peaks.
    • D. Puglia, E. A. Martinez, G. C. Ménard, A. Pöschl, S. Gronin, G. C. Gardner, R. Kallaher, M. J. Manfra, C. M. Marcus, A. P. Higginbotham, L. Casparis
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 103, 235201 (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.103.235201

    • Semiconductor qubits in practice - Abstract
      • In recent years semiconducting qubits have undergone a remarkable evolution, making great strides in overcoming decoherence as well as in prospects for scalability, and have become one of the leading contenders for the development of large-scale quantum circuits. In this Review we describe the current state of the art in semiconductor charge and spin qubits based on gate-controlled semiconductor quantum dots, shallow dopants, and color centers in wide band gap materials. We frame the relative strengths of the different semiconductor qubit implementations in the context of quantum simulations, computing, sensing and networks. By highlighting the status and future perspectives of the basic types of semiconductor qubits, this Review aims to serve as a technical introduction for non-specialists as well as a forward-looking reference for scientists intending to work in this field.
    • Anasua Chatterjee, Paul Stevenson, Silvano De Franceschi, Andrea Morello, Nathalie de Leon, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Nature Reviews Physics (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s42254-021-00283-9

    • Epitaxial Pb on InAs nanowires for quantum devices - Abstract
      • Semiconductor-superconductor hybrids are widely used for realising complex quantum phenomena such as topological superconductivity and spins coupled to Cooper pairs. Accessing exotic regimes at high magnetic fields and increasing operating temperatures beyond the state-of-the-art requires new, epitaxially matched semiconductor-superconductor materials. The challenge is to generate favourable conditions for heterostructure formation between materials with the desired inherent properties. Here, we harness increased knowledge of metal-on-semiconductor growth to develop InAs nanowires with epitaxially matched, single crystal, atomically flat Pb films along the entire nanowire. These highly ordered heterostructures have a critical temperature of 7 K and a superconducting gap of 1.25 meV, which remains hard at 8.5 T, thereby more than doubling the available parameter space. Additionally, InAs/Pb island devics exhibit magnetic field-driven transitions from Cooper pair to single electron charging; a pre-requisite for use in topological quantum computation. Introducing semiconductor-Pb hybrids potentially enables access to entirely new regimes for an array of quantum systems.
    • Thomas Kanne, Mikelis Marnauza, Dags Olsteins, Damon J. Carrad, Joachim E. Sestoft, Joeri de Bruijckere, Lunjie Zeng, Erik Johnson, Eva Olsson, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology (2021) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41565-021-00900-9

  • 2020
    • Exploring helical phases of matter in bosonic ladders - Abstract
      • Ladder models of ultracold atoms offer a versatile platform for the experimental and theoretical study of different phenomena and phases of matter linked to the interplay between artificial gauge fields and interactions. Strongly correlated helical states are known to appear for specific ratios of the particle and magnetic flux densities and they can often be interpreted as a one-dimensional limit of fractional quantum Hall states, thus being called pretopological. Their signatures, however, are typically hard to observe due to the small gaps characterizing these states. Here we investigate bosonic ladder models at filling factor 1. Based on bosonization, renormalization group and matrix product state simulations we pinpoint two strongly correlated helical phases appearing at this resonance. We show that one of them can be accessed in systems with two-species hardcore bosons and on-site repulsions only, thus amenable for optical lattice experiments. Its signatures are sizable and stable over a broad range of parameters for realistic system sizes.
    • Andreas Haller, Apollonas S. Matsoukas-Roubeas, Yueting Pan, Matteo Rizzi, Michele Burrello
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Research 2, 043433 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.043433

    • Response to "Comment on Universal Lindblad Equation for open quantum systems" - Abstract
      • In a recent comment, Lee and Yeo show that the Gibbs state is not generically an exact steady state of the Universal Lindblad Equation (ULE) that we developed in Phys. Rev. B 102, 115109 (2020). This non-controversial observation is precisely as expected for open quantum systems with finite system-bath coupling, where transition rates may be comparable to or larger than the level spacing of the system, and we made no claim to the contrary in our paper. The comment by Lee and Yeo hence highlights that the ULE captures contributions to the steady state due to finite system-bath coupling that are beyond the reach of master equations that rely on rotating wave approximations. In this response we further clarify the nature of our analytical and numerical results.
    • 2011.04574v1 [pdf]
      Frederik Nathan, Mark S. Rudner

    • Two-impurity Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in coupled quantum dots - Abstract
      • Using double quantum dots as the weak link of a Josephson junction, we realize the superconducting analog of the celebrated two-impurity Kondo model. The device shows a cusped current-voltage characteristic, which can be modelled by an overdamped circuit relating the observed cusp current to the Josephson critical current. The gate dependence of the cusp current and of the subgap spectra are used as complementary ground-state indicators to demonstrate gate-tuned changes of the ground state from an inter-dot singlet to independently screened Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) singlets. In contrast to the two-impurity Kondo effect in normal-state systems, the crossover between these two singlets is heralded by quantum phase boundaries to nearby doublet YSR phases in which only a single spin is screened.
    • J. C. Estrada Saldaña, A. Vekris, R. Žitko, G. Steffensen, P. Krogstrup, J. Paaske, K. Grove-Rasmussen, J. Nygård
      Journal reference: Physical Review B 102, 195143 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.195143

    • Universal Lindblad equation for open quantum systems - Abstract
      • We develop a Markovian master equation in the Lindblad form that enables the efficient study of a wide range of open quantum many-body systems that would be inaccessible with existing methods. The validity of the master equation is based entirely on properties of the bath and the system-bath coupling, without any requirements on the level structure within the system itself. The master equation is derived using a Markov approximation that is distinct from that used in earlier approaches. We provide a rigorous bound for the error induced by this Markov approximation; the error is controlled by a dimensionless combination of intrinsic correlation and relaxation timescales of the bath. Our master equation is accurate on the same level of approximation as the Bloch-Redfield equation. In contrast to the Bloch-Redfield approach, our approach ensures preservation of the positivity of the density matrix. As a result, our method is robust, and can be solved efficiently using stochastic evolution of pure states (rather than density matrices). We discuss how our method can be applied to static or driven quantum many-body systems, and illustrate its power through numerical simulation of a spin chain that would be challenging to treat by existing methods.
    • Frederik Nathan, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 102, 115109 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.115109

    • Parity-Protected Superconductor-Semiconductor Qubit - Abstract
      • Coherence of superconducting qubits can be improved by implementing designs that protect the parity of Cooper pairs on superconducting islands. Here, we introduce a parity-protected qubit based on voltage-controlled semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions, taking advantage of the higher harmonic content in the energy-phase relation of few-channel junctions. A symmetric interferometer formed by two such junctions, gate-tuned into balance and frustrated by a half-quantum of applied flux, yields a cos(2{\phi}) Josephson element, reflecting coherent transport of pairs of Cooper pairs. We demonstrate that relaxation of the qubit can be suppressed tenfold by tuning into the protected regime.
    • T. W. Larsen, M. E. Gershenson, L. Casparis, A. Kringhøj, N. J. Pearson, R. P. G. McNeil, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 056801 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.056801

    • Contrasting lattice geometry dependent versus independent quantities: Ramifications for Berry curvature, energy gaps, and dynamics - Abstract
      • In the tight-binding description of electronic, photonic, or cold atomic dynamics in a periodic lattice potential, particle motion is described in terms of hopping amplitudes and potentials on an abstract network of discrete sites corresponding to physical orbitals in the lattice. The physical attributes of the orbitals, including their locations in three-dimensional space, are independent pieces of information. In this paper we identify a notion of geometry-independence: any physical quantity or observable that depends only on the tight-binding parameters (and not on the explicit information about the orbital geometry) is said to be "geometry-independent." The band structure itself, and for example the Chern numbers of the bands in a two-dimensional system, are geometry-independent, while the Bloch-band Berry curvature is geometry-dependent. Careful identification of geometry-dependent versus independent quantities can be used as a novel principle for constraining a variety of results. By extending the notion of geometry-independence to certain classes of interacting systems, where the many-body energy gap is evidently geometry-independent, we shed new light on a hypothesized relation between many-body energy gaps of fractional Chern insulators and the uniformity of Bloch band Berry curvature in the Brillouin zone. We furthermore explore the geometry-dependence of semiclassical wave packet dynamics, and use this principle to show how two different types of Hall response measurements may give markedly different results due to the fact that one is geometry-dependent, while the other is geometry-independent. Similar considerations apply for anomalous thermal Hall response, in both electronic and spin systems.
    • Steven H. Simon, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 102, 165148 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.102.165148

    • Long-distance coherence of Majorana wires - Abstract
      • Theoretically, a pair of Majorana bound states in a topological superconductor forms a single fermionic level even at large separations, implying that the parity information is stored nonlocally. The nonlocality leads to a long-distance coherence for electrons tunneling through a Coulomb blockaded Majorana wire [Fu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 056402 (2010)], an effect that can be observed, e.g., in an interferometer. Here, we examine theoretically the coherent electron transfer, taking into account that tunneling implies the long-distance transfer of charge, which is carried by one-dimensional plasmons. We show that the charge dynamics does not affect the coherence of the electron tunneling process in a topological superconductor consisting of a semiconductor wire proximitized by a single bulk superconductor. The coherence may be strongly suppressed, however, if the topological superconductivity derives from a semiconductor wire proximitized by a granular superconductor.
    • Zheng Shi, Piet W. Brouwer, Karsten Flensberg, Leonid I. Glazman, Felix von Oppen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 101, 241414 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.241414

    • Coherent transport through a Majorana island in an Aharonov–Bohm interferometer - Abstract
      • Majorana zero modes are leading candidates for topological quantum computation due to non-local qubit encoding and non-abelian exchange statistics. Spatially separated Majorana modes are expected to allow phase-coherent single-electron transport through a topological superconducting island via a mechanism referred to as teleportation. Here we experimentally investigate such a system by patterning an elongated epitaxial InAs-Al island embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. With increasing parallel magnetic field, a discrete sub-gap state in the island is lowered to zero energy yielding persistent 1e-periodic Coulomb blockade conductance peaks (e is the elementary charge). In this condition, conductance through the interferometer is observed to oscillate in a perpendicular magnetic field with a flux period of h/e (h is Planck's constant), indicating coherent transport of single electrons through the islands, a signature of electron teleportation via Majorana modes, could also be observed, suggesting additional non-Majorana mechanisms for 1e transport through these moderately short wires.
    • A. M. Whiticar, A. Fornieri, E. C. T. O'Farrell, A. C. C. Drachmann, T. Wang, C. Thomas, S. Gronin, R. Kallaher, G. C. Gardner, M. J. Manfra, C. M. Marcus, F. Nichele
      Journal reference: Nat. Comm. 11, 3212 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16988-x

    • The Floquet Engineer's Handbook - Abstract
      • We provide a pedagogical technical guide to many of the key theoretical tools and ideas that underlie work in the field of Floquet engineering. We hope that this document will serve as a useful resource for new researchers aiming to enter the field, as well as experienced researchers who wish to gain new insight into familiar or possibly unfamiliar methods. This guide was developed out of supplementary material as a companion to our recent review, "Band structure engineering and non-equilibrium dynamics in Floquet topological insulators," Nature Reviews Physics 2, 229 (2020). The primary focus is on analytical techniques relevant for Floquet-Bloch band engineering and related many-body dynamics. We will continue to update this document over time to include additional content, and welcome suggestions for further topics to consider.
    • 2003.08252v2 [pdf]
      Mark S. Rudner, Netanel H. Lindner

    • Reaching the quantum Hall regime with rotating Rydberg-dressed atoms - Abstract
      • Despite the striking progress in the field of quantum gases, one of their much anticipated application -- the simulation of quantum Hall states -- remains elusive: all experimental approaches so far failed in reaching a sufficiently small ratio between atom and vortex densities. In this paper we consider rotating Rydberg--dressed atoms in magnetic traps: these gases offer strong and tunable non-local repulsive interactions and very low densities; hence they provide an exceptional platform to reach the quantum Hall regime. Based on the Lindemann criterion and the analysis of the interplay of the length scales of the system, we show that there exists an optimal value of the dressing parameters that minimizes the ratio between the filling factor of the system and its critical value to enter the Hall regime, thus making it possible to reach this strongly--correlated phase for more than 1000 atoms under realistic conditions.
    • Michele Burrello, Igor Lesanovsky, Andrea Trombettoni
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Research 2, 023290 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.023290

    • Quantum Dot Parity Effects in Trivial and Topological Josephson Junctions - Abstract
      • An odd-occupied quantum dot in a Josephson junction can flip transmission phase, creating a {\pi}-junction. When the junction couples topological superconductors, no phase flip is expected. We investigate this and related effects in a full-shell hybrid interferometer, using gate voltage to control dot-junction parity and axial magnetic flux to control the transition from trivial to topological superconductivity. Enhanced zero-bias conductance and critical current for odd parity in the topological phase reflects hybridization of the confined spin with zero-energy modes in the leads.
    • D. Razmadze, E. C. T. O'Farrell, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 116803 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.116803

    • Shadow Epitaxy for In Situ Growth of Generic Semiconductor/Superconductor Hybrids - Abstract
      • Uniform, defect-free crystal interfaces and surfaces are crucial ingredients for realizing high-performance nanoscale devices. A pertinent example is that advances in gate-tunable and topological superconductivity using semiconductor/superconductor electronic devices are currently built on the hard proximity-induced superconducting gap obtained from epitaxial indium arsenide/aluminium heterostructures. Fabrication of devices requires selective etch processes; these exist only for InAs/Al hybrids, precluding the use of other, potentially superior material combinations. We present a crystal growth platform -- based on three-dimensional structuring of growth substrates -- which enables synthesis of semiconductor nanowire hybrids with in-situ patterned superconductor shells. This platform eliminates the need for etching, thereby enabling full freedom in choice of hybrid constituents. We realise and characterise all the most frequently used architectures in superconducting hybrid devices, finding increased yield and electrostatic stability compared to etched devices, along with evidence of ballistic superconductivity. In addition to aluminium, we present hybrid devices based on tantalum, niobium and vanadium. This is the submitted version of the manuscript. The accepted, peer reviewed version is available from Advanced Materials: Previous title: Shadow lithography for in-situ growth of generic semiconductor/superconductor devices
    • Damon J. Carrad, Martin Bjergfelt, Thomas Kanne, Martin Aagesen, Filip Krizek, Elisabetta M. Fiordaliso, Erik Johnson, Jesper Nygård, Thomas Sand Jespersen
      Journal reference: Advanced Materials (2020) 1908411 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1002/adma.201908411

    • Destructive Little-Parks Effect in a Full-Shell Nanowire-Based Transmon - Abstract
      • A semiconductor transmon with an epitaxial Al shell fully surrounding an InAs nanowire core is investigated in the low $E_J/E_C$ regime. Little-Parks oscillations as a function of flux along the hybrid wire axis are destructive, creating lobes of reentrant superconductivity separated by a metallic state at a half-quantum of applied flux. In the first lobe, phase winding around the shell can induce topological superconductivity in the core. Coherent qubit operation is observed in both the zeroth and first lobes. Splitting of parity bands by coherent single-electron coupling across the junction is not resolved beyond line broadening, placing a bound on Majorana coupling, $E_M/h$ < 10 MHz, much smaller than the Josephson coupling $E_J/h$ ~ 4.7 GHz.
    • Deividas Sabonis, Oscar Erlandsson, Anders Kringhøj, Bernard van Heck, Thorvald W. Larsen, Ivana Petkovic, Peter Krogstrup, Karl D. Petersson, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 156804 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.156804

    • Parity-to-charge conversion in Majorana qubit readout - Abstract
      • We study the time-dependent effect of Markovian readout processes on Majorana qubits whose parity degrees of freedom are converted into the charge of a tunnel-coupled quantum dot. By applying a recently established effective Lindbladian approximation [1-3], we obtain a completely positive and trace preserving Lindblad master equation for the combined dot-qubit dynamics, describing relaxation and decoherence processes beyond the rotating-wave approximation. This approach is applicable to a wide range of weakly coupled environments representing experimentally relevant readout devices. We study in detail the case of thermal decay in the presence of a generic Ohmic bosonic bath, in particular for potential fluctuations in an electromagnetic circuit. In addition, we consider the nonequilibrium measurement environment for a parity readout using a quantum point contact capacitively coupled to the dot charge.
    • Morten I. K. Munk, Jens Schulenborg, Reinhold Egger, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Research 2, 033254 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.033254

    • Zero-bias peaks at zero magnetic field in ferromagnetic hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • We report transport measurements and tunneling spectroscopy in hybrid nanowires with epitaxial layers of superconducting Al and the ferromagnetic insulator EuS, grown on semiconducting InAs nanowires. In devices where the Al and EuS covered facets overlap, we infer a remanent effective Zeeman field of order 1 T, and observe stable zero-bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectroscopy into the end of the nanowire, consistent with topological superconductivity at zero applied field. Hysteretic features in critical current and tunneling spectra as a function of applied magnetic field support this picture. Nanowires with non-overlapping Al and EuS covered facets do not show comparable features. Topological superconductivity in zero applied field allows new device geometries and types of control.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, Y. Liu, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-1017-3
      2004.02226v1 [pdf]

    • Single-electron operations in a foundry-fabricated array of quantum dots - Abstract
      • Silicon spin qubits have achieved high-fidelity one- and two-qubit gates, above error correction thresholds, promising an industrial route to fault-tolerant quantum computation. A significant next step for the development of scalable multi-qubit processors is the operation of foundry-fabricated, extendable two-dimensional (2D) arrays. In gallium arsenide, 2D quantum-dot arrays recently allowed coherent spin operations and quantum simulations. In silicon, 2D arrays have been limited to transport measurements in the many-electron regime. Here, we operate a foundry-fabricated silicon 2x2 array in the few-electron regime, achieving single-electron occupation in each of the four gate-defined quantum dots, as well as reconfigurable single, double, and triple dots with tunable tunnel couplings. Pulsed-gate and gate-reflectometry techniques permit single-electron manipulation and single-shot charge readout, while the two-dimensionality allows the spatial exchange of electron pairs. The compact form factor of such arrays, whose foundry fabrication can be extended to larger 2xN arrays, along with the recent demonstration of coherent spin control and readout, paves the way for dense qubit arrays for quantum computation and simulation.
    • Fabio Ansaloni, Anasua Chatterjee, Heorhii Bohuslavskyi, Benoit Bertrand, Louis Hutin, Maud Vinet, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Nature Communications 11, 6399 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-20280-3

    • Anomalous metallic phase in tunable destructive superconductors - Abstract
      • Multiply connected superconductors smaller than the coherence length show destructive superconductivity, characterized by reentrant quantum phase transitions driven by magnetic flux. We investigate the dependence of destructive superconductivity on flux, transverse magnetic field, temperature, and current in InAs nanowires with a surrounding epitaxial Al shell, finding excellent agreement with mean-field theory across multiple reentrant transitions. Near the crossover between destructive and nondestructive regimes, an anomalous metal phase is observed with temperature-independent resistance, controlled over two orders of magnitude by a millitesla-scale transverse magnetic field.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 101, 060507 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.060507

    • Temperature induced shifts of Yu–Shiba–Rusinov resonances in nanowire-based hybrid quantum dots - Abstract
      • The strong coupling of a superconductor to a spinful quantum dot results in Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) discrete subgap excitations. In isolation and at zero temperature, the excitations are $\delta$ resonances. In transport experiments, however, they show as broad differential conductance peaks. We obtain the lineshape of the peaks and their temperature dependence in superconductor-quantum-dot-metal (S-QD-N) nanowire-based devices. Unexpectedly, we find that the peaks shift in energy with temperature, with the shift magnitude and sign depending on ground state parity and bias voltage. Additionally, we empirically find a power-law scaling of the peak area versus temperature. These observations are not explained by current models.
    • Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Alexandros Vekris, Victoria Sosnovtseva, Thomas Kanne, Peter Krogstrup, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård
      Journal reference: Commun Phys 3, 125 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s42005-020-0392-5

    • Absence of supercurrent sign reversal in a topological junction with a quantum dot - Abstract
      • Experimental techniques to verify Majoranas are of current interest. A prominent test is the effect of Majoranas on the Josephson current between two wires linked via a normal junction. Here, we study the case of a quantum dot connecting the two superconductors and the sign of the supercurrent in the trivial and topological regimes under grand-canonical equilibrium conditions, explicitly allowing for parity changes due to, e.g., quasi-particle poisoning. We find that the well-known supercurrent reversal for odd occupancy of the quantum dot (pi-junction) in the trivial case does not occur in the presence of Majoranas in the wires. However, we also find this to be a mere consequence of Majoranas being zero energy states. Therefore, the lack of supercurrent sign reversal can also be caused by trivial bound states, and is thus not a discriminating signature of Majoranas.
    • J. Schulenborg, K. Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 101, 014512 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.014512

    • Weak Measurement Protocols for Majorana Bound State Identification - Abstract
      • We propose a continuous weak measurement protocol testing the nonlocality of Majorana bound states through current shot noise correlations. The experimental setup contains a topological superconductor island with three normal-conducting leads weakly coupled to different Majorana states. Putting one lead at finite voltage and measuring the shot noise correlations between the other two (grounded) leads, devices with true Majorana states are distinguished from those without by strong current correlations. The presence of true Majoranas manifests itself in unusually high noise levels or the near absence of noise, depending on the chosen device configuration. Monitoring the noise statistics amounts to a weak continuous measurement of the Majorana qubit and yields information similar to that of a full braiding protocol, but at much lower experimental effort. Our theory can be adapted to different platforms and should allow for clear identification of Majorana states.
    • Jan Manousakis, Carolin Wille, Alexander Altland, Reinhold Egger, Karsten Flensberg, Fabian Hassler
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 096801 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.096801

    • Relating Andreev Bound States and Supercurrents in Hybrid Josephson Junctions - Abstract
      • We investigate superconducting quantum interference devices consisting of two highly transmissive Josephson junctions coupled by a superconducting loop, all defined in an epitaxial InAs/Al heterostructure. A novel device design allows for independent measurements of the Andreev bound state spectrum within the normal region of a junction and the resulting current-phase relation. We show that knowledge of the Andreev bound state spectrum alone is enough to derive the independently measured phase dependent supercurrent. On the other hand, the opposite relation does not generally hold true as details of the energy spectrum are averaged out in a critical current measurement. Finally, quantitative understanding of field dependent spectrum and supercurrent require taking into account the second junction in the loop and the kinetic inductance of the epitaxial Al film.
    • F. Nichele, E. Portolés, A. Fornieri, A. M. Whiticar, A. C. C. Drachmann, T. Wang, G. C. Gardner, C. Thomas, A. T. Hatke, M. J. Manfra, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 226801 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.226801

    • Suppressed Charge Dispersion via Resonant Tunneling in a Single-Channel Transmon - Abstract
      • We demonstrate strong suppression of charge dispersion in a semiconductor-based transmon qubit across Josephson resonances associated with a quantum dot in the junction. On resonance, dispersion is drastically reduced compared to conventional transmons with corresponding Josephson and charging energies. We develop a model of qubit dispersion for a single-channel resonance, which is in quantitative agreement with experimental data.
    • A. Kringhøj, B. van Heck, T. W. Larsen, O. Erlandsson, D. Sabonis, P. Krogstrup, L. Casparis, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 246803 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.246803

    • Timescales for charge transfer based operations on Majorana systems - Abstract
      • In this article we analyze the efficiency of operations based on transferring charge from a quantum dot (QD) to two coupled topological superconductors, which can be used for performing nonabelian operations on Majorana bound states (MBSs). We develop a method which allows us to describe the full time-evolution of the system as the QD energy is manipulated. Using a full counting statistics analysis, we set bounds to the operation time scales. The lower bound depends on the superconducting phase difference due to a partial decoupling of the different MBSs parity sectors, while the upper bound is set by the tunneling of quasiparticles to the MBSs. Using realistic parameters, we find the existence of a regime where the operation can be carried out with a fidelity close to unity. Finally, we propose the use of a two operations protocol to quantify the effect of the dephasing and accumulated dynamical phases, demonstrating their absence for certain superconducting phase differences.
    • R. Seoane Souto, K. Flensberg, M. Leijnse
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 101, 081407 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.101.081407

    • Controlled dc Monitoring of a Superconducting Qubit - Abstract
      • Creating a transmon qubit using semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials not only provides electrostatic control of the qubit frequency, it also allows parts of the circuit to be electrically connected and disconnected in situ by operating a semiconductor region of the device as a field-effect transistor (FET). Here, we exploit this feature to compare in the same device characteristics of the qubit, such as frequency and relaxation time, with related transport properties such as critical supercurrent and normal-state resistance. Gradually opening the FET to the monitoring circuit allows the influence of weak-to-strong DC monitoring of a live qubit to be measured. A model of this influence yields excellent agreement with experiment, demonstrating a relaxation rate mediated by a gate-controlled environmental coupling.
    • A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, B. van Heck, D. Sabonis, O. Erlandsson, I. Petkovic, D. I. Pikulin, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 056801 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.056801

    • Floquet topological insulators: from band structure engineering to novel non-equilibrium quantum phenomena - Abstract
      • We review methods for using time-periodic fields (e.g., laser or microwave fields) to induce non-equilibrium topological phenomena in quantum many-body systems. We discuss how such fields can be used to change the topological properties of the single particle spectrum, and key experimental demonstrations in solid state, cold atomic, and photonic systems. The single particle Floquet band structure provides a stage on which the system's dynamics play out; the crucial question is then how to obtain robust topological behaviour in the many-particle setting. In the regime of mesoscopic transport, we discuss manifestations of topological edge states induced in the Floquet spectrum. Outside the context of mesoscopic transport, the main challenge of inducing stable topological phases in many-body Floquet systems is their tendency to absorb energy from the drive and thereby to heat up. We discuss three routes to overcoming this challenge: long-lived transient dynamics and prethermalization, disorder-induced many-body localization, and engineered couplings to external baths. We discuss the types of phenomena that can be explored in each of these regimes, and their experimental realizations.
    • Mark S. Rudner, Netanel H. Lindner

    • Conductance-Matrix Symmetries of a Three-Terminal Hybrid Device - Abstract
      • We present conductance-matrix measurements of a three-terminal superconductor-semiconductor hybrid device consisting of two normal leads and one superconducting lead. Using a symmetry decomposition of the conductance, we find that the antisymmetric components of pairs of local and nonlocal conductances match at energies below the superconducting gap, consistent with expectations based on a non-interacting scattering matrix approach. Further, the local charge character of Andreev bound states is extracted from the symmetry-decomposed conductance data and is found to be similar at both ends of the device and tunable with gate voltage. Finally, we measure the conductance matrix as a function of magnetic field and identify correlated splittings in low-energy features, demonstrating how conductance-matrix measurements can complement traditional tunneling-probe measurements in the search for Majorana zero modes.
    • G. C. Ménard, G. L. R. Anselmetti, E. A. Martinez, D. Puglia, F. K. Malinowski, J. S. Lee, S. Choi, M. Pendharkar, C. J. Palmstrøm, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus, L. Casparis, A. P. Higginbotham
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 036802 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.036802

    • Nonlocal Conductance Spectroscopy of Andreev Bound States: Symmetry Relations and BCS Charges - Abstract
      • Two-terminal conductance spectroscopy of superconducting devices is a common tool for probing Andreev and Majorana bound states. Here, we study theoretically a three-terminal setup, with two normal leads coupled to a grounded superconducting terminal. Using a single-electron scattering matrix, we derive the subgap conductance matrix for the normal leads and discuss its symmetries. In particular, we show that the local and the nonlocal elements of the conductance matrix have pairwise identical antisymmetric components. Moreover, we find that the nonlocal elements are directly related to the local BCS charges of the bound states close to the normal probes and we show how the BCS charge of overlapping Majorana bound states can be extracted from experiments.
    • Jeroen Danon, Anna Birk Hellenes, Esben Bork Hansen, Lucas Casparis, Andrew P. Higginbotham, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 124, 036801 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.036801

    • Photon-assisted tunnelling of zero modes in a Majorana wire - Abstract
      • Hybrid nanowires with proximity-induced superconductivity in the topological regime host Majorana zero modes (MZMs) at their ends, and networks of such structures can produce topologically protected qubits. In a double-island geometry where each segment hosts a pair of MZMs, inter-pair coupling mixes the charge parity of the islands and opens an energy gap between the even and odd charge states at the inter-island charge degeneracy. Here, we report on the spectroscopic measurement of such an energy gap in an InAs/Al double-island device by tracking the position of the microwave-induced quasiparticle (qp) transitions using a radio-frequency (rf) charge sensor. In zero magnetic field, photon assisted tunneling (PAT) of Cooper pairs gives rise to resonant lines in the 2e-2e periodic charge stability diagram. In the presence of a magnetic field aligned along the nanowire, resonance lines are observed parallel to the inter-island charge degeneracy of the 1e-1e periodic charge stability diagram, where the 1e periodicity results from a zero-energy sub-gap state that emerges in magnetic field. Resonant lines in the charge stability diagram indicate coherent photon assisted tunneling of single-electron states, changing the parity of the two islands. The dependence of resonant frequency on detuning indicates a sizable (GHz-scale) hybridization of zero modes across the junction separating islands.
    • David M. T. van Zanten, Deividas Sabonis, Judith Suter, Jukka I. Väyrynen, Torsten Karzig, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, Karl D. Petersson, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Physics (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-0858-0

    • Flux-induced topological superconductivity in full-shell nanowires - Abstract
      • We consider a new model system supporting Majorana zero modes based on semiconductor nanowires with a full superconducting shell. We demonstrate that, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling in the semiconductor induced by a radial electric field, the winding of the superconducting order parameter leads to a topological phase supporting Majorana zero modes. The topological phase persists over a large range of chemical potentials and can be induced by a predictable and weak magnetic field piercing the cylinder. The system can be readily realized in semiconductor nanowires covered by a full superconducting shell, opening a pathway for realizing topological quantum computing proposals.
    • Roman M. Lutchyn, Georg W. Winkler, Bernard van Heck, Torsten Karzig, Karsten Flensberg, Leonid I. Glazman, Chetan Nayak
      Journal reference: Science 367, eaav3392 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav3392

    • Flux-induced topological superconductivity in full-shell nanowires - Abstract
      • We demonstrate a novel means of creating Majorana zero modes using magnetic flux applied to a full superconducting shell surrounding a semiconducting nanowire core, unifying approaches based on proximitized nanowires and vortices in topological superconductors. In the destructive Little-Parks regime, reentrant regions of superconductivity are associated with integer number of phase windings in the shell. Tunneling into the core reveals a hard induced gap near zero applied flux, corresponding to zero phase winding, and a gapped region with a discrete zero-energy state for flux around {\Phi}_0 = h/2e, corresponding to 2{\pi} phase winding. Coulomb peak spacing in full-shell islands around one applied flux shows exponentially decreasing deviation from 1e periodicity with device length, consistent with the picture of Majorana modes located at the ends of the wire.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, M. -T. Deng, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Science 367, eaav3392 (2020) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aav3392

  • 2019
    • Current-Induced Gap Opening in Interacting Topological Insulator Surfaces - Abstract
      • Two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) host gapless helical edge states that are predicted to support a quantized two-terminal conductance. Quantization is protected by time-reversal symmetry, which forbids elastic backscattering. Paradoxically, the current-carrying state itself breaks the time-reversal symmetry that protects it. Here we show that the combination of electron-electron interactions and momentum-dependent spin polarization in helical edge states gives rise to feedback through which an applied current opens a gap in the edge state dispersion, thereby breaking the protection against elastic backscattering. Current-induced gap opening is manifested via a nonlinear contribution to the system's $I-V$ characteristic, which persists down to zero temperature. We discuss prospects for realizations in recently discovered large bulk band gap TIs, and an analogous current-induced gap opening mechanism for the surface states of three-dimensional TIs.
    • Ajit C. Balram, Karsten Flensberg, Jens Paaske, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 246803 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.246803

    • Fast Charge Sensing of Si/SiGe Quantum Dots via a High-Frequency Accumulation Gate - Abstract
      • Quantum dot arrays are a versatile platform for the implementation of spin qubits, as high-bandwidth sensor dots can be integrated with single-, double- and triple-dot qubits yielding fast and high-fidelity qubit readout. However, for undoped silicon devices, reflectometry off sensor ohmics suffers from the finite resistivity of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), and alternative readout methods are limited to measuring qubit capacitance, rather than qubit charge. By coupling a surface-mount resonant circuit to the plunger gate of a high-impedance sensor, we realized a fast charge sensing technique that is compatible with resistive 2DEGs. We demonstrate this by acquiring at high speed charge stability diagrams of double- and triple-dot arrays in Si/SiGe heterostructures as well as pulsed-gate single-shot charge and spin readout with integration times as low as 2.4 $\mu$s.
    • Christian Volk, Anasua Chatterjee, Fabio Ansaloni, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Nano Letters 19, 5628-5633 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02149

    • Symmetry-protected spin gaps in quantum wires - Abstract
      • This work shows that a strongly correlated phase which is gapped to collective spin excitations but gapless to charge fluctuations emerges as a universal feature in one-dimensional fermionic systems obeying certain symmetries. Namely, nanowires interacting via Coulomb repulsion which are symmetric under time-reversal and spatial inversion symmetry exhibit spin gaps whenever one pair of spin-degenerate subbands is occupied and an arbitrarily weak spin-orbit interaction is present. This general result is independent of the details of the one-dimensional confinement, the fermionic spin or nature of the spin-orbit interaction. In narrow-gap semiconductors, this gap may be of order 10 \textmu eV. This strongly correlated phase may be identified both via an anomalous $h/2e$ flux periodicity in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and $2e$ periodic Coulomb blockade, features which reflect the existence of fermionic pairing despite the absence of superconductivity and the repulsive nature of the interaction.
    • Tommy Li
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 155309 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.155309

    • Field theory approach to the quantum transport in Weyl semimetals - Abstract
      • We analyze the structure of the surface states and Fermi arcs of Weyl semimetals as a function of the boundary conditions parameterizing the Hamiltonian self-adjoint extensions of a minimal model with two Weyl points. These boundary conditions determine both the pseudospin polarization of the system on the surface and the shape of the associated Fermi arcs. We analytically derive the expectation values of the density profile of the surface current, we evaluate the anomalous Hall conductivity as a function of temperature and chemical potential and we discuss the surface current correlation functions and their contribution to the thermal noise. Based on a lattice variant of the model, we numerically study the surface states at zero temperature and we show that their polarization and, consequently, their transport properties, can be varied by suitable Zeeman terms localized on the surface. We also provide an estimate of the bulk conductance of the system based on the Landauer-B\"uttiker approach. Finally, we analyze the surface anomalous thermal Hall conductivity and we show that the boundary properties lead to a correction of the expected universal thermal Hall conductivity, thus violating the Wiedemann-Franz law.
    • Michele Burrello, Enore Guadagnini, Luca Lepori, Mihail Mintchev
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 155131 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.155131

    • Semiconductor–Ferromagnetic Insulator–Superconductor Nanowires: Stray Field and Exchange Field - Abstract
      • Nanowires can serve as flexible substrates for hybrid epitaxial growth on selected facets, allowing for design of heterostructures with complex material combinations and geometries. In this work we report on hybrid epitaxy of semiconductor - ferromagnetic insulator - superconductor (InAs/EuS/Al) nanowire heterostructures. We study the crystal growth and complex epitaxial matching of wurtzite InAs / rock-salt EuS interfaces as well as rock-salt EuS / face-centered cubic Al interfaces. Because of the magnetic anisotropy originating from the nanowire shape, the magnetic structure of the EuS phase are easily tuned into single magnetic domains. This effect efficiently ejects the stray field lines along the nanowires. With tunnel spectroscopy measurements of the density of states, we show the material has a hard induced superconducting gap, and magnetic hysteretic evolution which indicates that the magnetic exchange fields are not negligible. These hybrid nanowires fulfil key material requirements for serving as a platform for spin-based quantum applications, such as scalable topological quantum computing.
    • Yu Liu, Saulius Vaitiekenas, Sara Marti-Sanchez, Christian Koch, Sean Hart, Zheng Cui, Thomas Kanne, Sabbir A. Khan, Rawa Tanta, Shivendra Upadhyay, Martin Espineira Cachaza, Charles M. Marcus, Jordi Arbiol, Kathryn A. Moler, Peter Krogstrup
      DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b04187
      1910.03364v1 [pdf]

    • Band bending profile and band offset extraction at semiconductor-metal interfaces - Abstract
      • The band alignment of semiconductor-metal interfaces plays a vital role in modern electronics, but remains difficult to predict theoretically and measure experimentally. For interfaces with strong band bending a main difficulty originates from the in-built potentials which lead to broadened and shifted band spectra in spectroscopy measurements. In this work we present a method to resolve the band alignment of buried semiconductor-metal interfaces using core level photoemission spectroscopy and self-consistent electronic structure simulations. As a proof of principle we apply the method to a clean in-situ grown InAs(100)/Al interface, a system with a strong in-built band bending. Due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the core level spectra the proposed methodology can be used on previously inaccessible semiconductor-metal interfaces and support targeted design of novel hybrid devices and form the foundation for a interface parameter database for specified synthesis processes of semiconductor-metal systems.
    • 1910.02735v1 [pdf]
      Sergej Schuwalow, Niels B. M. Schroeter, Jan Gukelberger, Candice Thomas, Vladimir Strocov, John Gamble, Alla Chikina, Marco Caputo, Jonas Krieger, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Matthias Troyer, Gabriel Aeppli, Michael J. Manfra, Peter Krogstrup

    • Charge and spin textures of Ising quantum Hall ferromagnet domain walls - Abstract
      • We investigate the charge and spin structures associated with arbitrary smooth polarization textures in Ising (integer) quantum Hall ferromagnets. We consider the case where the two polarizations (denoted "pseudospin" up and down) correspond to states with opposite physical spin and different Landau level indices, $n\uparrow$ and $m\downarrow$. We derive analytic expressions for the charge and spin densities, as functions of the underlying pseudospin texture, and use these results to investigate different types of linear domain walls, both analytically and numerically. We find that any smooth domain wall between two oppositely polarized domains carries a universal quantized charge dipole density proportional to the difference of Landau level indices, $n-m$. Additionally, non-uniformities in the domain wall may give rise to excess net charge localized at the domain wall. Interestingly, the physical spin density associated with the domain wall generally exhibits a much more complex multipolar structure than that of the pseudospin texture. These results should for example help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nuclear electric resonance and nuclear polarization oscillations in Ising quantum Hall systems.
    • Jeroen Danon, Ajit C. Balram, Samuel Sánchez, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 235406 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.235406

    • The antiferromagnetic phase of the Floquet-driven Hubbard model - Abstract
      • A saddle point plus fluctuations analysis of the periodically driven half-filled two-dimensional Hubbard model is performed. For drive frequencies below the equilibrium gap, we find discontinuous transitions to time-dependent solutions. A highly excited, generically non-thermal distribution of magnons occurs even for drive frequencies far above the gap. Above a critical drive amplitude, the low-energy magnon distribution diverges as the frequency tends to zero and antiferromagnetism is destroyed, revealing the generic importance of collective mode excitations arising from a non-equilibrium drive.
    • Nicklas Walldorf, Dante M. Kennes, Jens Paaske, Andrew J. Millis
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 121110 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.121110

    • End-to-end correlated subgap states in hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • End-to-end correlated bound states are investigated in superconductor-semiconductor hybrid nanowires at zero magnetic field. Peaks in subgap conductance are independently identified from each wire end, and a cross-correlation function is computed that counts end-to-end coincidences, averaging over thousands of subgap features. Strong correlations in a short, $300~\mathrm{nm}$ device are reduced by a factor of four in a long, $900~\mathrm{nm}$ device. In addition, subgap conductance distributions are investigated, and correlations between the left and right distributions are identified based on their mutual information.
    • G. L. R. Anselmetti, E. A. Martinez, G. C. Ménard, D. Puglia, F. K. Malinowski, J. S. Lee, S. Choi, M. Pendharkar, C. J. Palmstrøm, C. M. Marcus, L. Casparis, A. P. Higginbotham
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 205412 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.205412

    • Dispersive sensing in hybrid InAs/Al nanowires - Abstract
      • Dispersive charge sensing is realized in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowires in gate-defined single- and double-island device geometries. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were measured both in the frequency and time domain. Frequency-domain measurements were carried out as a function of frequency and power and yield a charge sensitivity of $1 \times 10^{-3} e/\sqrt{\rm Hz}$ for an 11 MHz measurement bandwidth. Time-domain measurements yield SNR > 1 for 20 $\mu$s integration time. At zero magnetic field, photon-assisted tunneling was detected dispersively in a double-island geometry, indicating coherent hybridization of the two superconducting islands. At an axial magnetic field of 0.6 T, subgap states are detected dispersively, demonstrating the suitability of the method for sensing in the topological regime.
    • Deividas Sabonis, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Davydas Razmadze, David M. T. van Zanten, Judith Suter, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 115, 102601 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5116377

    • Anomalous Floquet insulators - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the existence of a two-dimensional anomalous Floquet insulator (AFI) phase: an interacting (periodically-driven) non-equilibrium topological phase of matter with no counterpart in equilibrium. The AFI is characterized by a many-body localized bulk, exhibiting nontrivial micromotion within a driving period, and delocalized (thermalizing) chiral states at its boundaries. For a geometry without edges, we argue analytically that the bulk may be many-body localized in the presence of interactions, deriving conditions where stability is expected. We investigate the interplay between the thermalizing edge and the localized bulk via numerical simulations of an AFI in a geometry with edges. We find that non-uniform particle density profiles remain stable in the bulk up to the longest timescales that we can access, while the propagating edge states persist and thermalize, despite being coupled to the bulk. These findings open the possibility of observing quantized edge transport in interacting systems at high temperature. The analytical approach introduced in this paper can be used to study the stability of other anomalous Floquet phases.
    • Frederik Nathan, Dmitry Abanin, Erez Berg, Netanel H. Lindner, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 195133 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.195133

    • Fidelity and visibility loss in Majorana qubits by entanglement with environmental modes - Abstract
      • We study the dynamics and readout of topological qubits encoded by zero-energy Majorana bound states in a topological superconductor. We take into account bosonic modes due to the electromagnetic environment which couple the Majorana manifold to above-gap continuum quasi-particles. This coupling causes the degenerate ground state of the topological superconductor to be dressed in a polaron-like manner by quasi-particle states and bosons, and the system to become gapless. Topological protection and hence full coherence is only maintained if the qubit is operated and read out within the low-energy spectrum of the dressed states. We discuss reduction of fidelity and/or visibility if this condition is violated by a quantum-dot readout that couples to the bare (undressed) Majorana modes. For a projective measurement of the bare Majorana basis, we formulate a Bloch-Redfield approach that is valid for weak Majorana-environment coupling and takes into account constraints imposed by fermion-number-parity conservation. Within the Markovian approximation, our results essentially confirm earlier theories of finite-temperature decoherence based on Fermi's golden rule. However, the full non-Markovian dynamics reveals, in addition, the fidelity reduction by a projective measurement. Using a spinless nanowire model with $p$-wave pairing, we provide quantitative results characterizing these effects.
    • Morten I. K. Munk, Reinhold Egger, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 155419 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.155419

    • In-Plane Magnetoconductance Mapping of InSb Quantum Wells - Abstract
      • In-plane magnetoconductance of InSb quantum wells (QW) containing a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is presented. Using a vector magnet, we created a magnetoconductance map which shows the suppression of weak antilocalization (WAL) as a function of applied field. By fitting the in-plane field response of the 2DEG, we estimate material disorder and g-factor as a function of crystal direction. The in-plane WAL suppression is found to be dominated by the Zeeman effect and to show a small crystal-orientation-dependent anistropy in disorder and g-factor. These measurements show the utility of multi-directional measurement of magnetoconductance in analyzing material properties.
    • 1902.07570v1 [pdf]
      J. T. Mlack, K. S. Wickramasinghe, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, C. M. Marcus

    • Suppressing quasiparticle poisoning with a voltage-controlled filter - Abstract
      • We study single-electron charging events in an Al/InAs nanowire hybrid system with deliberately introduced gapless regions. The occupancy of a Coulomb island is detected using a nearby radio-frequency quantum dot as a charge sensor. We demonstrate that a 1 micron gapped segment of the wire can be used to efficiently suppress single electron poisoning of the gapless region and therefore protect the parity of the island while maintaining good electrical contact with a normal lead. In the absence of protection by charging energy, the 1e switching rate can be reduced below 200 per second. In the same configuration, we observe strong quantum charge fluctuations due to exchange of electron pairs between the island and the lead. The magnetic field dependence of the poisoning rate yields a zero-field superconducting coherence length of ~ 90 nm.
    • Gerbold C. Ménard, Filip K. Malinowski, Denise Puglia, Dmitry I. Pikulin, Torsten Karzig, Bela Bauer, Peter Krogstrup, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 165307 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.165307

    • Radio-Frequency Methods for Majorana-Based Quantum Devices: Fast Charge Sensing and Phase-Diagram Mapping - Abstract
      • Radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry is implemented in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowire systems designed to probe Majorana zero modes. Two approaches are presented. In the first, hybrid nanowire-based devices are part of a resonant circuit, allowing conductance to be measured as a function of several gate voltages ~40 times faster than using conventional low-frequency lock-in methods. In the second, nanowire devices are capacitively coupled to a nearby RF single-electron transistor made from a separate nanowire, allowing RF detection of charge, including charge-only measurement of the crossover from 2e inter-island charge transitions at zero magnetic field to 1e transitions at axial magnetic fields above 0.6 T, where a topological state is expected. Single-electron sensing yields signal-to-noise exceeding 3 and visibility 99.8% for a measurement time of 1 {\mu}s.
    • Davydas Razmadze, Deividas Sabonis, Filip K. Malinowski, Gerbold C. Menard, Sebastian Pauka, Hung Nguyen, David M. T. van Zanten, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Judith Suter, Peter Krogstrup, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 11, 064011 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064011

    • Interplay between magnetic and vestigial nematic orders in the layered - Abstract
      • We study the layered $J_1$-$J_2$ classical Heisenberg model on the square lattice using a self-consistent bond theory. We derive the phase diagram for fixed $J_1$ as a function of temperature $T$, $J_2$ and interplane coupling $J_z$. Broad regions of (anti)ferromagnetic and stripe order are found, and are separated by a first-order transition near $J_2\approx 0.5$ (in units of $|J_1|$). Within the stripe phase the magnetic and vestigial nematic transitions occur simultaneously in first-order fashion for strong $J_z$. For weaker $J_z$ there is in addition, for $J_2^*<j_2 <="<" j_2^{**}$,="J_2^{**}$," an="an" intermediate="intermediate" regime="regime" of="of" split="split" transitions="transitions" implying="implying" a="a" finite="finite" temperature="temperature" region="region" with="with" nematic="nematic" order="order" but="but" no="no" long-range="long-range" stripe="stripe" magnetic="magnetic" order.="order." in="In" this="this" split="split" regime,="regime," the="the" order="order" of="of" the="the" transitions="transitions" depends="depends" sensitively="sensitively" on="on" the="the" deviation="deviation" from="from" $j_2^*$="$J_2^*$" and="and" $j_2^{**}$,="$J_2^{**}$," with="with" split="split" second-order="second-order" transitions="transitions" predominating="predominating" for="for" $j_2^*="$J_2^*" \ll="\ll" j_2="J_2" \ll="\ll" j_2^{**}$.="J_2^{**}$." we="We" find="find" that="that" the="the" value="value" of="of" $j_2^*$="$J_2^*$" depends="depends" weakly="weakly" on="on" the="the" interplane="interplane" coupling="coupling" and="and" is="is" just="just" slightly="slightly" larger="larger" than="than" $0.5$="$0.5$" for="for" $|j_z|="$|J_z|" \lesssim="\lesssim" 0.01$.="0.01$." in="In" contrast="contrast" the="the" value="value" of="of" $j_2^{**}$="$J_2^{**}$" increases="increases" quickly="quickly" from="from" $j_2^*$="$J_2^*$" at="at" $|j_z|="$|J_z|" \lesssim="\lesssim" 0.01$="0.01$" as="as" the="the" interplane="interplane" coupling="coupling" is="is" further="further" reduced.="reduced." in="In" addition,="addition," the="the" magnetic="magnetic" correlation="correlation" length="length" is="is" shown="shown" to="to" directly="directly" depend="depend" on="on" the="the" nematic="nematic" order="order" parameter="parameter" and="and" thus="thus" exhibits="exhibits" a="a" sharp="sharp" increase="increase" (or="(or" jump)="jump)" upon="upon" entering="entering" the="the" nematic="nematic" phase.="phase." our="Our" results="results" are="are" broadly="broadly" consistent="consistent" with="with" predictions="predictions" based="based" on="on" itinerant="itinerant" electron="electron" models="models" of="of" the="the" iron-based="iron-based" superconductors="superconductors" in="In" the="the" normal-state,="normal-state," and="and" thus="thus" help="help" substantiate="substantiate" a="a" classical="classical" spin="spin" framework="framework" for="for" providing="providing" a="a" phenomenological="phenomenological" description="description" of="of" their="their" magnetic="magnetic" properties.
    • Olav F. Syljuåsen, Jens Paaske, Michael Schecter
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 174404 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.174404

    • Coulomb-interaction-induced Majorana edge modes in nanowires - Abstract
      • We show that Majorana edge modes appear in a strongly correlated phase of semiconducting nanowires with discrete rotational symmetry in the cross section. These modes exist in the absence of spin-orbit coupling, magnetic fields and superconductivity. They appear purely due to the combination of the three-dimensional Coulomb interaction and orbital physics, which generates a fermionic condensate exhibiting a topological ground state degeneracy in a sector of the spectrum which is gapped to continuum modes. The gap can be comparable in magnitude to the topological superconducting gap in other solid-state candidate systems for Majorana edge modes, and may similarly be probed via tunnel spectroscopy.
    • Tommy Li, Michele Burrello, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 100, 045305 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.100.045305

    • Coupling of shells in a carbon nanotube quantum dot - Abstract
      • We systematically study the coupling of longitudinal modes (shells) in a carbon nanotube quantum dot. Inelastic cotunneling spectroscopy is used to probe the excitation spectrum in parallel, perpendicular and rotating magnetic fields. The data is compared to a theoretical model including coupling between shells, induced by atomically sharp disorder in the nanotube. The calculated excitation spectra show good correspondence with experimental data.
    • M. C. Hels, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, K. Grove-Rasmussen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 035422 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.035422

    • Evidence of topological superconductivity in planar Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • Majorana zero modes are quasiparticle states localized at the boundaries of topological superconductors that are expected to be ideal building blocks for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Several observations of zero-bias conductance peaks measured in tunneling spectroscopy above a critical magnetic field have been reported as experimental indications of Majorana zero modes in superconductor/semiconductor nanowires. On the other hand, two dimensional systems offer the alternative approach to confine Ma jorana channels within planar Josephson junctions, in which the phase difference {\phi} between the superconducting leads represents an additional tuning knob predicted to drive the system into the topological phase at lower magnetic fields. Here, we report the observation of phase-dependent zero-bias conductance peaks measured by tunneling spectroscopy at the end of Josephson junctions realized on a InAs/Al heterostructure. Biasing the junction to {\phi} ~ {\pi} significantly reduces the critical field at which the zero-bias peak appears, with respect to {\phi} = 0. The phase and magnetic field dependence of the zero-energy states is consistent with a model of Majorana zero modes in finite-size Josephson junctions. Besides providing experimental evidence of phase-tuned topological superconductivity, our devices are compatible with superconducting quantum electrodynamics architectures and scalable to complex geometries needed for topological quantum computing.
    • Antonio Fornieri, Alexander M. Whiticar, F. Setiawan, Elías Portolés Marín, Asbjørn C. C. Drachmann, Anna Keselman, Sergei Gronin, Candice Thomas, Tian Wang, Ray Kallaher, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Erez Berg, Michael J. Manfra, Ady Stern, Charles M. Marcus, Fabrizio Nichele
      Journal reference: Nature 569, 89-92 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1068-8

    • Coulomb Blockade of a Nearly Open Majorana Island - Abstract
      • We consider the ground-state energy and the spectrum of the low-energy excitations of a Majorana island formed of topological superconductors connected by a single-mode junction of arbitrary transmission. Coulomb blockade results in $e$-periodic modulation of the energies with the gate-induced charge. We find the amplitude of modulation as a function of reflection coefficient ${\cal R}$. The amplitude scales as $\sqrt{\cal R}$ in the limit ${\cal R}\to 0$. At larger ${\cal R}$, the dependence of the amplitude on the Josephson and charging energies is similar to that of a conventional-superconductor Cooper-pair box. The crossover value of ${\cal R}$ is small and depends on the ratio of the charging energy to superconducting gap.
    • Dmitry I. Pikulin, Karsten Flensberg, Leonid I. Glazman, Manuel Houzet, Roman M. Lutchyn
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 016801 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.016801

    • Fast spin exchange across a multielectron mediator - Abstract
      • The Heisenberg exchange interaction between neighboring quantum dots allows precise voltage control over spin dynamics, due to the ability to precisely control the overlap of orbital wavefunctions by gate electrodes. This allows the study of fundamental electronic phenomena and finds applications in quantum information processing. Although spin-based quantum circuits based on short-range exchange interactions are possible, the development of scalable, longer-range coupling schemes constitutes a critical challenge within the spin-qubit community. Approaches based on capacitative coupling and cavity-mediated interactions effectively couple spin qubits to the charge degree of freedom, making them susceptible to electrically-induced decoherence. The alternative is to extend the range of the Heisenberg exchange interaction by means of a quantum mediator. Here, we show that a multielectron quantum dot with 50-100 electrons serves as an excellent mediator, preserving speed and coherence of the resulting spin-spin coupling while providing several functionalities that are of practical importance. These include speed (mediated two-qubit rates up to several gigahertz), distance (of order of a micrometer), voltage control, possibility of sweet spot operation (reducing susceptibility to charge noise), and reversal of the interaction sign (useful for dynamical decoupling from noise).
    • Filip K. Malinowski, Frederico Martins, Thomas B. Smith, Stephen D. Bartlett, Andrew C. Doherty, Peter D. Nissen, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Nature Communications 10, 1196 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09194-x

    • Voltage-controlled superconducting quantum bus - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the ability of an epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowire to serve as a field-effect switch to tune a superconducting cavity. Two superconducting gatemon qubits are coupled to the cavity, which acts as a quantum bus. Using a gate voltage to control the superconducting switch yields up to a factor of 8 change in qubit-qubit coupling between the on and off states without detrimental effect on qubit coherence. High-bandwidth operation of the coupling switch on nanosecond timescales degrades qubit coherence.
    • L. Casparis, N. J. Pearson, A. Kringhøj, T. W. Larsen, F. Kuemmeth, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 99, 085434 (2019) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.99.085434

  • 2018
    • Supercurrent in a Double Quantum Dot - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the Josephson effect in a serial double quantum dot defined in a nanowire with epitaxial superconducting leads. The supercurrent stability diagram adopts a honeycomb pattern with electron-hole and left-right reflection symmetry. We observe sharp discontinuities in the magnitude of the critical current, $I_c$, as a function of dot occupation, related to doublet to singlet ground state transitions. Detuning of the energy levels offers a tuning knob for $I_c$, which attains a maximum at zero detuning. The consistency between experiment and theory indicates that our device is a faithful realization of the two-impurity Anderson model.
    • J. C. Estrada Saldaña, A. Vekris, G. Steffensen, R. Žitko, P. Krogstrup, J. Paaske, K. Grove-Rasmussen, J. Nygård
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 257701 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.257701

    • Nonlocality of Majorana modes in hybrid nanowires - Abstract
      • Spatial separation of Majorana zero modes distinguishes trivial from topological midgap states and is key to topological protection in quantum computing applications. Although signatures of Majorana zero modes in tunneling spectroscopy have been reported in numerous studies, a quantitative measure of the degree of separation, or nonlocality, of the emergent zero modes has not been reported. Here, we present results of an experimental study of nonlocality of emergent zero modes in superconductor-semiconductor hybrid nanowire devices. The approach takes advantage of recent theory showing that nonlocality can be measured from splitting due to hybridization of the zero mode in resonance with a quantum dot state at one end of the nanowire. From these splittings as well as anticrossing of the dot states, measured for even and odd occupied quantum dot states, we extract both the degree of nonlocality of the emergent zero mode, as well as the spin canting angles of the nonlocal zero mode. Depending on the device measured, we obtain either a moderate degree of nonlocality, suggesting a partially separated Andreev subgap state, or a highly nonlocal state consistent with a well-developed Majorana mode.
    • M. T. Deng, S. Vaitiekénas, E. Prada, P. San-Jose, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, R. Aguado, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 98, 085125 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.98.085125

    • Dyonic zero-energy modes - Abstract
      • One-dimensional systems with topological order are intimately related to the appearance of zero-energy modes localized on their boundaries. The most common example is the Kitaev chain, which displays Majorana zero-energy modes and it is characterized by a two-fold ground state degeneracy related to the global $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry associated with fermionic parity. By extending the symmetry to the $\mathbb{Z}_N$ group, it is possible to engineer systems hosting topological parafermionic modes. In this work, we address one-dimensional systems with a generic discrete symmetry group $G$. We define a ladder model of gauge fluxes that generalizes the Ising and Potts models and displays a symmetry broken phase. Through a non-Abelian Jordan-Wigner transformation, we map this flux ladder into a model of dyonic operators, defined by the group elements and irreducible representations of $G$. We show that the so-obtained dyonic model has topological order, with zero-energy modes localized at its boundary. These dyonic zero-energy modes are in general weak topological modes, but strong dyonic zero modes appear when suitable position-dependent couplings are considered.
    • Morten I. K. Munk, Asbjørn Rasmussen, Michele Burrello
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 98, 245135 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.98.245135

    • Effective - Abstract
      • We use the effective g-factor of subgap states, g*, in hybrid InAs nanowires with an epitaxial Al shell to investigate how the superconducting density of states is distributed between the semiconductor core and the metallic shell. We find a step-like reduction of g* and improved hard gap with reduced carrier density in the nanowire, controlled by gate voltage. These observations are relevant for Majorana devices, which require tunable carrier density and g* exceeding the g-factor of the proximitizing superconductor. Additionally, we observe the closing and reopening of a gap in the subgap spectrum coincident with the appearance of a zero-bias conductance peak.
    • S. Vaitiekėnas, M. T. Deng, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 037703 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.037703

    • Strain-enhanced optical absorbance of topological insulator films - Abstract
      • Topological insulator films are promising materials for optoelectronics due to a strong optical absorption and a thickness dependent band gap of the topological surface states. They are superior candidates for photodetector applications in the THz-infrared spectrum, with a potential performance higher than graphene. Using a first-principles $k\cdot p$ Hamiltonian, incorporating all symmetry-allowed terms to second order in the wave vector $k$, first order in the strain $\epsilon$ and of order $\epsilon k$, we demonstrate significantly improved optoelectronic performance due to strain. For Bi$_2$Se$_3$ films of variable thickness, the surface state band gap, and thereby the optical absorption, can be effectively tuned by application of uniaxial strain, $\epsilon_{zz}$, leading to a divergent band edge absorbance for $\epsilon_{zz}\gtrsim 6\%$. Shear strain breaks the crystal symmetry and leads to an absorbance varying significantly with polarization direction. Remarkably, the directional average of the absorbance always increases with strain, independent of material parameters.
    • Mathias Rosdahl Brems, Jens Paaske, Anders Mathias Lunde, Morten Willatzen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 97, 081402(R) (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.081402

    • Hybridization at Superconductor-Semiconductor Interfaces - Abstract
      • Hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices are currently one of the most promising platforms for realizing Majorana zero modes. Their topological properties are controlled by the band alignment of the two materials, as well as the electrostatic environment, which are currently not well understood. Here, we pursue to fill in this gap and address the role of band bending and superconductor-semiconductor hybridization in such devices by analyzing a gated single Al-InAs interface using a self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson approach. Our numerical analysis shows that the band bending leads to an interface quantum well, which localizes the charge in the system near the superconductor-semiconductor interface. We investigate the hybrid band structure and analyze its response to varying the gate voltage and thickness of the Al layer. This is done by studying the hybridization degrees of the individual subbands, which determine the induced pairing and effective $g$-factors. The numerical results are backed by approximate analytical expressions which further clarify key aspects of the band structure. We find that one can obtain states with strong superconductor-semiconductor hybridization at the Fermi energy, but this requires a fine balance of parameters, with the most important constraint being on the width of the Al layer. In fact, in the regime of interest, we find an almost periodic dependence of the hybridization degree on the Al width, with a period roughly equal to the thickness of an Al monolayer. This implies that disorder and shape irregularities, present in realistic devices, may play an important role for averaging out this sensitivity and, thus, may be necessary for stabilizing the topological phase.
    • August E. G. Mikkelsen, Panagiotis Kotetes, Peter Krogstrup, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. X 8, 031040 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.8.031040

    • Four-Majorana qubit with charge readout: Dynamics and decoherence - Abstract
      • We present a theoretical analysis of a Majorana-based qubit consisting of two topological superconducting islands connected via a Josephson junction. The qubit is operated by electrostatic gates which control the coupling of two of the four Majorana zero modes. At the end of the operation, readout is performed in the charge basis. Even though the operations are not topologically protected, the proposed experiment can potentially shed light on the coherence of the parity degree of freedom in Majorana devices and serve as a first step towards topological Majorana qubits. We discuss in detail the charge-stability diagram and its use for characterizing the parameters of the devices, including the overlap of the Majorana edge states. We describe the multi-level spectral properties of the system and present a detailed study of its controlled coherent oscillations, as well as decoherence resulting from coupling to a non-Markovian environment. In particular, we study a gate-controlled protocol where conversion between Coulomb-blockade and transmon regimes generates coherent oscillations of the qubit state due to the overlap of Majorana modes. We show that, in addition to fluctuations of the Majorana coupling, considerable measurement errors may be accumulated during the conversion intervals when electrostatic fluctuations in the superconducting islands are present. These results are also relevant for several proposed implementations of topological qubits which rely on readout based on charge detection.
    • Tommy Li, William A. Coish, Michael Hell, Karsten Flensberg, Martin Leijnse
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 98, 205403 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.98.205403

    • Hybridization of Subgap States in One-Dimensional Superconductor-Semiconductor Coulomb Islands - Abstract
      • We present measurements of one-dimensional superconductor-semiconductor Coulomb islands, fabricated by gate confinement of a two-dimensional InAs heterostructure with an epitaxial Al layer. When tuned via electrostatic side gates to regimes without sub-gap states, Coulomb blockade reveals Cooper-pair mediated transport. When sub-gap states are present, Coulomb peak positions and heights oscillate in a correlated way with magnetic field and gate voltage, as predicted theoretically, with (anti) crossings in (parallel) transverse magnetic field indicating Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling. Overall results are consistent with a picture of overlapping Majorana zero modes in finite wires.
    • E. C. T. O'Farrell, A. C. C. Drachmann, M. Hell, A. Fornieri, A. M. Whiticar, E. B. Hansen, S. Gronin, G. C. Gardener, C. Thomas, M. J. Manfra, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus, F. Nichele
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 256803 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.256803

    • Field effect enhancement in buffered quantum nanowire networks - Abstract
      • III-V semiconductor nanowires have shown great potential in various quantum transport experiments. However, realizing a scalable high-quality nanowire-based platform that could lead to quantum information applications has been challenging. Here, we study the potential of selective area growth by molecular beam epitaxy of InAs nanowire networks grown on GaAs-based buffer layers. The buffered geometry allows for substantial elastic strain relaxation and a strong enhancement of field effect mobility. We show that the networks possess strong spin-orbit interaction and long phase coherence lengths with a temperature dependence indicating ballistic transport. With these findings, and the compatibility of the growth method with hybrid epitaxy, we conclude that the material platform fulfills the requirements for a wide range of quantum experiments and applications.
    • Filip Krizek, Joachim E. Sestoft, Pavel Aseev, Sara Marti-Sanchez, Saulius Vaitiekenas, Lucas Casparis, Sabbir A. Khan, Yu Liu, Tomas Stankevic, Alexander M. Whiticar, Alexandra Fursina, Frenk Boekhout, Rene Koops, Emanuele Uccelli, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Charles M. Marcus, Jordi Arbiol, Peter Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 093401 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.093401

    • Symmetry analysis of strain, electric and magnetic fields in the Bi - Abstract
      • Based on group theoretical arguments we derive the most general Hamiltonian for the $\text{Bi}_2\text{Se}_3$-class of materials including terms to third order in the wave vector, first order in electric and magnetic fields, first order in strain and first order in both strain and wave vector. We determine analytically the effects of strain on the electronic structure of $\text{Bi}_2\text{Se}_3$. For the most experimentally relevant surface termination we analytically derive the surface state spectrum, revealing an anisotropic Dirac cone with elliptical constant energy counturs giving rise to different velocities in different in-plane directions. The spin-momentum locking of strained $\text{Bi}_2\text{Se}_3$ is shown to be modified and for some strain configurations we see a non-zero spin component perpendicular to the surface. Hence, strain control can be used to manipulate the spin degree of freedom via the spin-orbit coupling. We show that for a thin film of $\text{Bi}_2\text{Se}_3$ the surface state band gap induced by coupling between the opposite surfaces changes opposite to the bulk band gap under strain. Tuning the surface state band gap by strain, gives new possibilities for the experimental investigation of the thickness dependent gap and optimization of optical properties relevant for, e.g., photodetector and energy harvesting applications. We finally derive analytical expressions for the effective mass tensor of the Bi$_2$Se$_3$ class of materials as a function of strain and electric field.
    • Mathias Rosdahl Jensen, Jens Paaske, Anders Mathias Lunde, Morten Willatzen
      Journal reference: New J. Phys. 20 (2018) 053041 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aabcfc

    • Distinguishing Majorana bound states from localized Andreev bound states by interferometry - Abstract
      • Experimental evidence for Majorana bound states (MBSs) is so far mainly based on the robustness of a zero-bias conductance peak. However, similar features can also arise due to Andreev bound states (ABSs) localized at the end of an island. We show that these two scenarios can be distinguished by an interferometry experiment based on embedding a Coulomb-blockaded island into an Aharonov-Bohm ring. For two ABSs, when the ground state is nearly degenerate, cotunneling can change the state of the island and interference is suppressed. By contrast, for two MBSs the ground state is nondegenerate and cotunneling has to preserve the island state, which leads to $h / e$-periodic conductance oscillations with magnetic flux. Such interference setups can be realized with semiconducting nanowires or two-dimensional electron gases with proximity-induced superconductivity and may also be a useful spectroscopic tool for parity-flip mechanisms.
    • Michael Hell, Karsten Flensberg, Martin Leijnse
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 97, 161401 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.161401

    • Probing electron-hole components of subgap states in Coulomb blockaded Majorana islands - Abstract
      • Recent tunneling spectroscopy experiments in semiconducting nanowires with proximity-induced superconductivity have reported robust zero-bias conductance peaks. Such a feature can be compatible with the existence of topological Majorana bound states (MBSs) and with a trivial Andreev bound state (ABS) near zero energy. Here, we argue that additional information, that can distinguish between the two cases, can be extracted from Coulomb-blockade experiments of Majorana islands. The key is the ratio of peak heights of consecutive conductance peaks give information about the electron and hole components of the lowest-energy subgap state. In the MBS case, this ratio goes to one half for long wires, while for short wires with finite MBS overlap it oscillates a function of Zeeman energy with the same period as the MBS energy splitting. We explain how the additional information might help to distinguish a trivial ABS at zero energy from a true MBS and show case examples.
    • Esben Bork Hansen, Jeroen Danon, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 97, 041411 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.041411

    • Engineering hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires for stronger topological protection - Abstract
      • The combination of strong spin-orbit coupling, large $g$-factors, and the coupling to a superconductor can be used to create a topologically protected state in a semiconductor nanowire. Here we report on growth and characterization of hybrid epitaxial InAsSb/Al nanowires, with varying composition and crystal structure. We find the strongest spin-orbit interaction at intermediate compositions in zincblende InAs$_{1-x}$Sb$_{x}$ nanowires, exceeding that of both InAs and InSb materials, confirming recent theoretical studies \cite{winkler2016topological}. We show that the epitaxial InAsSb/Al interfaces allows for a hard induced superconducting gap and 2$e$ transport in Coulomb charging experiments, similar to experiments on InAs/Al and InSb/Al materials, and find measurements consistent with topological phase transitions at low magnetic fields due to large effective $g$-factors. Finally we present a method to grow pure wurtzite InAsSb nanowires which are predicted to exhibit even stronger spin-orbit coupling than the zincblende structure.
    • Joachim E. Sestoft, Thomas Kanne, Aske Nørskov Gejl, Merlin von Soosten, Jeremy S. Yodh, Daniel Sherman, Brian Tarasinski, Michael Wimmer, Erik Johnson, Mingtang Deng, Jesper Nygård, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Charles M. Marcus, Peter Krogstrup
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 044202 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.044202

    • Superconducting gatemon qubit based on a proximitized two-dimensional electron gas - Abstract
      • The coherent tunnelling of Cooper pairs across Josephson junctions (JJs) generates a nonlinear inductance that is used extensively in quantum information processors based on superconducting circuits, from setting qubit transition frequencies and interqubit coupling strengths, to the gain of parametric amplifiers for quantum-limited readout. The inductance is either set by tailoring the metal-oxide dimensions of single JJs, or magnetically tuned by parallelizing multiple JJs in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with local current-biased flux lines. JJs based on superconductor-semiconductor hybrids represent a tantalizing all-electric alternative. The gatemon is a recently developed transmon variant which employs locally gated nanowire (NW) superconductor-semiconductor JJs for qubit control. Here, we go beyond proof-of-concept and demonstrate that semiconducting channels etched from a wafer-scale two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) are a suitable platform for building a scalable gatemon-based quantum computer. We show 2DEG gatemons meet the requirements by performing voltage-controlled single qubit rotations and two-qubit swap operations. We measure qubit coherence times up to ~2 us, limited by dielectric loss in the 2DEG host substrate.
    • Lucas Casparis, Malcolm R. Connolly, Morten Kjaergaard, Natalie J. Pearson, Anders Kringhøj, Thorvald W. Larsen, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Tiantian Wang, Candice Thomas, Sergei Gronin, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Karl D. Petersson
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 13, 915 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41565-018-0207-y

    • Yu–Shiba–Rusinov screening of spins in double quantum dots - Abstract
      • A magnetic impurity coupled to a superconductor gives rise to a Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) state inside the superconducting energy gap. With increasing exchange coupling the excitation energy of this state eventually crosses zero and the system switches to a YSR groundstate with bound quasiparticles screening the impurity spin by $\hbar/2$. Here we explore InAs nanowire double quantum dots tunnel coupled to a superconductor and demonstrate YSR screening of spin-1/2 and spin-1 states. Gating the double dot through 9 different charge states, we show that the honeycomb pattern of zero-bias conductance peaks, archetypal of double dots coupled to normal leads, is replaced by lines of zero-energy YSR states. These enclose regions of YSR-screened dot spins displaying distinctive spectral features, and their characteristic shape and topology change markedly with tunnel coupling strengths. We find excellent agreement with a simple zero-bandwidth approximation, and with numerical renormalization group calculations for the two-orbital Anderson model.
    • K. Grove-Rasmussen, G. Steffensen, A. Jellinggaard, M. H. Madsen, R. Žitko, J. Paaske, J. Nygård
      Journal reference: Nature Communications 9, 2376 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04683-x

    • Many-Body Dynamics and Gap Opening in Interacting Periodically Driven Systems - Abstract
      • We study the transient dynamics in a two-dimensional system of interacting Dirac fermions subject to a quenched drive with circularly polarized light. In the absence of interactions, the drive opens a gap at the Dirac point in the quasienergy spectrum, inducing nontrivial band topology. Here we investigate the dynamics of this gap opening process in the presence of interactions, as captured by the generalized spectral function and correlators probed by photoemission experiments. Through a mechanism akin to that known for equilibrium systems, interactions renormalize and enhance the induced gap over its value for the non-interacting system. We additionally study the heating that naturally accompanies driving in the interacting system, and discuss the regimes where dynamical gap emergence and enhancement can be probed before heating becomes significant.
    • Ervand Kandelaki, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 036801 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.036801

    • Spin of a Multielectron Quantum Dot and Its Interaction with a Neighboring Electron - Abstract
      • We investigate the spin of a multielectron GaAs quantum dot in a sequence of nine charge occupancies, by exchange coupling the multielectron dot to a neighboring two-electron double quantum dot. For all nine occupancies, we make use of a leakage spectroscopy technique to reconstruct the spectrum of spin states in the vicinity of the interdot charge transition between a single- and a multielectron quantum dot. In the same regime we also perform time-resolved measurements of coherent exchange oscillations between the single- and multielectron quantum dot. With these measurements, we identify distinct characteristics of the multielectron spin state, depending on whether the dot's occupancy is even or odd. For three out of four even occupancies we do not observe any exchange interaction with the single quantum dot, indicating a spin-0 ground state. For the one remaining even occupancy, we observe an exchange interaction that we associate with a spin-1 multielectron quantum dot ground state. For all five of the odd occupancies, we observe an exchange interaction associated with a spin-1/2 ground state. For three of these odd occupancies, we clearly demonstrate that the exchange interaction changes sign in the vicinity of the charge transition. For one of these, the exchange interaction is negative (i.e. triplet-preferring) beyond the interdot charge transition, consistent with the observed spin-1 for the next (even) occupancy. Our experimental results are interpreted through the use of a Hubbard model involving two orbitals of the multielectron quantum dot. Allowing for the spin correlation energy (i.e. including a term favoring Hund's rules) and different tunnel coupling to different orbitals, we qualitatively reproduce the measured exchange profiles for all occupancies.
    • Filip K. Malinowski, Frederico Martins, Thomas B. Smith, Stephen D. Bartlett, Andrew C. Doherty, Peter D. Nissen, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. X 8, 011045 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.8.011045

    • Anharmonicity of a superconducting qubit with a few-mode Josephson junction - Abstract
      • Coherent operation of gate-voltage-controlled hybrid transmon qubits (gatemons) based on semiconductor nanowires was recently demonstrated. Here we experimentally investigate the anharmonicity in epitaxial InAs-Al Josephson junctions, a key parameter for their use as a qubit. Anharmonicity is found to be reduced by roughly a factor of two compared to conventional metallic junctions, and dependent on gate voltage. Experimental results are consistent with a theoretical model, indicating that Josephson coupling is mediated by a small number of highly transmitting modes in the semiconductor junction.
    • A. Kringhøj, L. Casparis, M. Hell, T. W. Larsen, F. Kuemmeth, M. Leijnse, K. Flensberg, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 97, 060508 (2018) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.060508

  • 2017
    • Zero-Energy Modes from Coalescing Andreev States in a Two-Dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrid Platform - Abstract
      • We investigate zero-bias conductance peaks that arise from coalescing subgap Andreev states, consistent with emerging Majorana zero modes, in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor wires defined in a two-dimensional InAs/Al heterostructure using top-down lithography and gating. The measurements indicate a hard superconducting gap, ballistic tunneling contact, and in-plane critical fields up to $3$~T. Top-down lithography allows complex geometries, branched structures, and straightforward scaling to multicomponent devices compared to structures made from assembled nanowires.
    • Henri J. Suominen, Morten Kjaergaard, Alexander R. Hamilton, Javad Shabani, Chris J. Palmstrøm, Charles M. Marcus, Fabrizio Nichele
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 176805 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.176805

    • Scaling of Majorana Zero-Bias Conductance Peaks - Abstract
      • We report an experimental study of the scaling of zero-bias conductance peaks compatible with Majorana zero modes as a function of magnetic field, tunnel coupling, and temperature in one-dimensional structures fabricated from an epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure. Results are consistent with theory, including a peak conductance that is proportional to tunnel coupling, saturates at $2e^2/h$, decreases as expected with field-dependent gap, and collapses onto a simple scaling function in the dimensionless ratio of temperature and tunnel coupling.
    • Fabrizio Nichele, Asbjorn C. C. Drachmann, Alexander M. Whiticar, Eoin C. T. O'Farrell, Henri J. Suominen, Antonio Fornieri, Tian Wang, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Candice Thomas, Anthony T. Hatke, Peter Krogstrup, Michael J. Manfra, Karsten Flensberg, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 136803 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.136803

    • Scalable designs for quasiparticle-poisoning-protected topological quantum computation with Majorana zero modes - Abstract
      • We present designs for scalable quantum computers composed of qubits encoded in aggregates of four or more Majorana zero modes, realized at the ends of topological superconducting wire segments that are assembled into superconducting islands with significant charging energy. Quantum information can be manipulated according to a measurement-only protocol, which is facilitated by tunable couplings between Majorana zero modes and nearby semiconductor quantum dots. Our proposed architecture designs have the following principal virtues: (1) the magnetic field can be aligned in the direction of all of the topological superconducting wires since they are all parallel; (2) topological $T$-junctions are not used, obviating possible difficulties in their fabrication and utilization; (3) quasiparticle poisoning is abated by the charging energy; (4) Clifford operations are executed by a relatively standard measurement: detection of corrections to quantum dot energy, charge, or differential capacitance induced by quantum fluctuations; (5) it is compatible with strategies for producing good approximate magic states.
    • Torsten Karzig, Christina Knapp, Roman M. Lutchyn, Parsa Bonderson, Matthew B. Hastings, Chetan Nayak, Jason Alicea, Karsten Flensberg, Stephan Plugge, Yuval Oreg, Charles M. Marcus, Michael H. Freedman
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 95, 235305 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.235305

    • Noise suppression and long-range exchange coupling for gallium arsenide spin qubits - Abstract
      • This thesis presents the results of the experimental study performed on spin qubits realized in gate-defined gallium arsenide quantum dots, with the focus on noise suppression and long-distance coupling.
    • 1706.03771v1 [pdf]
      Filip Kazimierz Malinowski

    • Conductance spectroscopy on Majorana wires and the inverse proximity effect - Abstract
      • Recent experimental searches for signatures of Majorana-like excitations in proximitized semiconducting nanowires involve conductance spectroscopy, where the evidence sought after is a robust zero-bias peak (in longer wires) and its characteristic field-dependent splitting (in shorter wires). Although experimental results partially confirm the theoretical predictions, commonly observed discrepancies still include (i) a zero-bias peak that is significantly lower than the predicted value of $2e^2/h$ and (ii) the absence of the expected "Majorana oscillations" of the lowest-energy modes at higher magnetic fields. Here, we investigate how the inevitable presence of a normal drain lead connected to the hybrid wire can affect the conductance spectrum of the hybrid wire. We present numerical results using a one-band model for the proximitized nanowire, where the superconductor is considered to be in the diffusive regime, described by semi-classical Green functions. We show how the presence of the normal drain could (at least partially) account for the observed discrepancies, and we complement this with analytic results providing more insights in the underlying physics.
    • Jeroen Danon, Esben Bork Hansen, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 96, 125420 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.125420

    • Negative Spin Exchange in a Multielectron Quantum Dot - Abstract
      • By operating a one-electron quantum dot (fabricated between a multielectron dot and a one-electron reference dot) as a spectroscopic probe, we study the spin properties of a gate-controlled multielectron GaAs quantum dot at the transition between odd and even occupation number. We observe that the multielectron groundstate transitions from spin-1/2-like to singlet-like to triplet-like as we increase the detuning towards the next higher charge state. The sign reversal in the inferred exchange energy persists at zero magnetic field, and the exchange strength is tunable by gate voltages and in-plane magnetic fields. Complementing spin leakage spectroscopy data, the inspection of coherent multielectron spin exchange oscillations provides further evidence for the sign reversal and, inferentially, for the importance of non-trivial multielectron spin exchange correlations.
    • Frederico Martins, Filip K. Malinowski, Peter D. Nissen, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 227701 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.227701

    • Nematic Bond Theory of Heisenberg Helimagnets - Abstract
      • We study classical two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg models with generically incommensurate groundstates. A new theory for the spin-nematic "order by disorder" transition is developed based on the self-consistent determination of the effective exchange coupling bonds. In our approach, fluctuations of the constraint field imposing conservation of the local magnetic moment drive nematicity at low temperatures. The critical temperature is found to be highly sensitive to the peak helimagnetic wavevector, and vanishes continuously when approaching rotation symmetric Lifshitz points. Transitions between symmetry distinct nematic orders may occur by tuning the exchange parameters, leading to lines of bicritical points.
    • Michael Schecter, Olav. F. Syljuåsen, J. Paaske
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 157202 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.157202

    • Kondo blockade due to quantum interference in single-molecule junctions - Abstract
      • Molecular electronics offers unique scientific and technological possibilities, resulting from both the nanometre scale of the devices and their reproducible chemical complexity. Two fundamental yet different effects, with no classical analogue, have been demonstrated experimentally in single-molecule junctions: quantum interference due to competing electron transport pathways, and the Kondo effect due to entanglement from strong electronic interactions. Here we unify these phenomena, showing that transport through a spin-degenerate molecule can be either enhanced or blocked by Kondo correlations, depending on molecular structure, contacting geometry and applied gate voltages. An exact framework is developed, in terms of which the quantum interference properties of interacting molecular junctions can be systematically studied and understood. We prove that an exact Kondo-mediated conductance node results from destructive interference in exchange-cotunneling. Nonstandard temperature dependences and gate-tunable conductance peaks/nodes are demonstrated for prototypical molecular junctions, illustrating the intricate interplay of quantum effects beyond the single-orbital paradigm.
    • Andrew K. Mitchell, Kim G. L. Pedersen, Per Hedegaard, Jens Paaske
      Journal reference: Nature Communications, 8, 15210 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15210

    • Spectrum of the Nuclear Environment for GaAs Spin Qubits - Abstract
      • Using a singlet-triplet spin qubit as a sensitive spectrometer of the GaAs nuclear spin bath, we demonstrate that the spectrum of Overhauser noise agrees with a classical spin diffusion model over six orders of magnitude in frequency, from 1 mHz to 1 kHz, is flat below 10 mHz, and falls as $1/f^2$ for frequency $f \! \gtrsim \! 1$ Hz. Increasing the applied magnetic field from 0.1 T to 0.75 T suppresses electron-mediated spin diffusion, which decreases spectral content in the $1/f^2$ region and lowers the saturation frequency, each by an order of magnitude, consistent with a numerical model. Spectral content at megahertz frequencies is accessed using dynamical decoupling, which shows a crossover from the few-pulse regime ($\lesssim \! 16$ $\pi$-pulses), where transverse Overhauser fluctuations dominate dephasing, to the many-pulse regime ($\gtrsim \! 32$ $\pi$-pulses), where longitudinal Overhauser fluctuations with a $1/f$ spectrum dominate.
    • Filip K. Malinowski, Frederico Martins, Łukasz Cywiński, Mark S. Rudner, Peter D. Nissen, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 177702 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.177702

    • Coupling and braiding Majorana bound states in networks defined in two-dimensional electron gases with proximity-induced superconductivity - Abstract
      • Two-dimensional electron gases with strong spin-orbit coupling covered by a superconducting layer offer a flexible and potentially scalable platform for Majorana networks. We predict Majorana bound states (MBSs) to appear for experimentally achievable parameters and realistic gate potentials in two designs: either underneath a narrow stripe of a superconducting layer (S-stripes) or where a narrow stripe has been removed from a uniform layer (N-stripes). The coupling of the MBSs can be tuned for both types in a wide range (< 1 neV to >10 $\mu$eV) using gates placed adjacent to the stripes. For both types, we numerically compute the local density of states for two parallel Majorana-stripe ends as well as Majorana trijunctions formed in a tuning-fork geometry. The MBS coupling between parallel Majorana stripes can be suppressed below 1 neV for potential barriers in the meV range for separations of about 200 nm. We further show that the MBS couplings in a trijunction can be gate-controlled in a range similar to the intra-stripe coupling while maintaining a sizable gap to the excited states (tens of $\mu$eV). Altogether, this suggests that braiding can carried out on a time scale of 10-100 ns.
    • Michael Hell, Karsten Flensberg, Martin Leijnse
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 96, 035444 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.035444

    • Magnetoelectric coupling in superconductor-helimagnet heterostructures - Abstract
      • The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of a conventional superconductor coupled to a helimagnet is microscopically derived using functional field integral techniques. We show that the spin texture leads to a Lifshitz invariant in the free energy, which couples the momentum density of the superconducting condensate to the magnetization of the helimagnet. For helimagnets with a conical texture, the Lifshitz invariant yields a spatial modulation of the superconducting phase along the helical wavevector of the magnetic texture. Based on self-consistent numerical calculations, we verify the theoretical formalism by investigating a superconductor that contains a helical Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) chain. We demonstrate that the texture-induced magnetoelectric coupling produces a strong supercurrent along the YSR chain, which induces a detectable magnetic field.
    • Kjetil M. D. Hals
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 95, 134504 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.134504

    • Symmetric operation of the resonant exchange qubit - Abstract
      • We operate a resonant exchange qubit in a highly symmetric triple-dot configuration using IQ-modulated RF pulses. At the resulting three-dimensional sweet spot the qubit splitting is an order of magnitude less sensitive to all relevant control voltages, compared to the conventional operating point, but we observe no significant improvement in the quality of Rabi oscillations. For weak driving this is consistent with Overhauser field fluctuations modulating the qubit splitting. For strong driving we infer that effective voltage noise modulates the coupling strength between RF drive and the qubit, thereby quickening Rabi decay. Application of CPMG dynamical decoupling sequences consisting of up to n = 32 {\pi} pulses significantly prolongs qubit coherence, leading to marginally longer dephasing times in the symmetric configuration. This is consistent with dynamical decoupling from low frequency noise, but quantitatively cannot be explained by effective gate voltage noise and Overhauser field fluctuations alone. Our results inform recent strategies for the utilization of partial sweet spots in the operation and long-distance coupling of triple-dot qubits.
    • Filip K. Malinowski, Frederico Martins, Peter D. Nissen, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 96, 045443 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.045443

    • Notch filtering the nuclear environment of a spin qubit - Abstract
      • Electron spins in gate-defined quantum dots provide a promising platform for quantum computation. In particular, spin-based quantum computing in gallium arsenide takes advantage of the high quality of semiconducting materials, reliability in fabricating arrays of quantum dots, and accurate qubit operations. However, the effective magnetic noise arising from the hyperfine interaction with uncontrolled nuclear spins in the host lattice constitutes a major source of decoherence. Low frequency nuclear noise, responsible for fast (10 ns) inhomogeneous dephasing, can be removed by echo techniques. High frequency nuclear noise, recently studied via echo revivals, occurs in narrow frequency bands related to differences in Larmor precession of the three isotopes $\mathbf{^{69}Ga}$, $\mathbf{^{71}Ga}$, and $\mathbf{^{75}As}$. Here we show that both low and high frequency nuclear noise can be filtered by appropriate dynamical decoupling sequences, resulting in a substantial enhancement of spin qubit coherence times. Using nuclear notch filtering, we demonstrate a spin coherence time ($\mathbf{T_{2}}$) of 0.87 ms, five orders of magnitude longer than typical exchange gate times, and exceeding the longest coherence times reported to date in Si/SiGe gate-defined quantum dots.
    • F. K. Malinowski, F. Martins, P. D. Nissen, E. Barnes, Ł. Cywiński, M. S. Rudner, S. Fallahi, G. C. Gardner, M. J. Manfra, C. M. Marcus, F. Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Nat. Nanotechnol. 12, 16-20 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.170

    • Current–phase relations of few-mode InAs nanowire Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • Gate-tunable semiconductor nanowires with superconducting leads have great potential for quantum computation and as model systems for mesoscopic Josephson junctions. The supercurrent, $I$, versus the phase, $\phi$, across the junction is called the current-phase relation (CPR). It can reveal not only the amplitude of the critical current, but also the number of modes and their transmission. We measured the CPR of many individual InAs nanowire Josephson junctions, one junction at a time. Both the amplitude and shape of the CPR varied between junctions, with small critical currents and skewed CPRs indicating few-mode junctions with high transmissions. In a gate-tunable junction, we found that the CPR varied with gate voltage: Near the onset of supercurrent, we observed behavior consistent with resonant tunneling through a single, highly transmitting mode. The gate dependence is consistent with modeled subband structure that includes an effective tunneling barrier due to an abrupt change in the Fermi level at the boundary of the gate-tuned region. These measurements of skewed, tunable, few-mode CPRs are promising both for applications that require anharmonic junctions and for Majorana readout proposals.
    • Eric M. Spanton, Mingtang Deng, Saulius Vaitiekėnas, Peter Krogstrup, Jesper Nygård, Charles M. Marcus, Kathryn A. Moler
      Journal reference: Nature Physics (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys4224

    • Majorana box qubits - Abstract
      • Quantum information protected by the topology of the storage medium is expected to exhibit long coherence times. Another feature are topologically protected gates generated through braiding of Majorana bound states. However, braiding requires structures with branched topological segments which have inherent difficulties in the semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures now believed to host Majorana bound states. In this paper, we construct quantum bits taking advantage of the topological protection and non-local properties of Majorana bound states in a network of parallel wires, but without relying on braiding for quantum gates. The elementary unit is made from three topological wires, two wires coupled by a trivial superconductor and the third acting as an interference arm. Coulomb blockade of the combined wires spawns a fractionalized spin, non-locally addressable by quantum dots used for single-qubit readout, initialization, and manipulation. We describe how the same tools allow for measurement-based implementation of the Clifford gates, in total making the architecture universal. Proof-of-principle demonstration of topologically protected qubits using existing techniques is therefore within reach.
    • Stephan Plugge, Asbjørn Rasmussen, Reinhold Egger, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: New J. Phys 19, 012001 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aa54e1

    • Transport Signatures of Quasiparticle Poisoning in a Majorana Island - Abstract
      • We investigate effects of quasiparticle poisoning in a Majorana island with strong tunnel coupling to normal-metal leads. In addition to the main Coulomb blockade diamonds, "shadow" diamonds appear, shifted by 1e in gate voltage, consistent with transport through an excited (poisoned) state of the island. Comparison to a simple model yields an estimate of parity lifetime for the strongly coupled island (~ 1 {\mu}s) and sets a bound for a weakly coupled island (> 10 {\mu}s). Fluctuations in the gate-voltage spacing of Coulomb peaks at high field, reflecting Majorana hybridization, are enhanced by the reduced lever arm at strong coupling. In energy units, fluctuations are consistent with previous measurements.
    • S. M. Albrecht, E. B. Hansen, A. P. Higginbotham, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, J. Danon, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 137701 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.137701

    • Two-Dimensional Platform for Networks of Majorana Bound States - Abstract
      • We model theoretically a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) covered by a superconductor and demonstrate that topological superconducting channels are formed when stripes of the superconducting layer are removed. As a consequence, Majorana bound states (MBS) are created at the ends of the stripes. We calculate the topological invariant and energy gap of a single stripe, using realistic values for an InAs 2DEG proximitized by an epitaxial Al layer. We show that the topological gap is enhanced when the structure is made asymmetric. This can be achieved by either imposing a phase difference (by driving a supercurrent or using a magnetic-flux loop) over the strip or by replacing one superconductor by a metallic gate. Both strategies also enable control over the MBS splitting, thereby facilitating braiding and readout schemes based on controlled fusion of MBS. Finally, we outline how a network of Majorana stripes can be designed.
    • Michael Hell, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 107701 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.107701

    • Proximity Effect Transfer from NbTi into a Semiconductor Heterostructure via Epitaxial Aluminum - Abstract
      • We demonstrate the transfer of the superconducting properties of NbTi---a large-gap high-critical-field superconductor---into an InAs heterostructure via a thin intermediate layer of epitaxial Al. Two device geometries, a Josephson junction and a gate-defined quantum point contact, are used to characterize interface transparency and the two-step proximity effect. In the Josephson junction, multiple Andreev reflection reveal near-unity transparency, with an induced gap $\Delta^*=0.50~\mathrm{meV}$ and a critical temperature of $7.8~\mathrm{K}$. Tunneling spectroscopy yields a hard induced gap in the InAs adjacent to the superconductor of $\Delta^*=0.43~\mathrm{meV}$ with substructure characteristic of both Al and NbTi.
    • A. C. C. Drachmann, H. J. Suominen, M. Kjaergaard, B. Shojaei, C. J. Palmstrøm, C. M. Marcus, F. Nichele
      Journal reference: Nano Lett. 17, 1200 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04964

    • Giant Spin-Orbit Splitting in Inverted - Abstract
      • Transport measurements in inverted InAs/GaSb quantum wells reveal a giant spin-orbit splitting of the energy bands close to the hybridization gap. The splitting results from the interplay of electron-hole mixing and spin-orbit coupling, and can exceed the hybridization gap. We experimentally investigate the band splitting as a function of top gate voltage for both electron-like and hole-like states. Unlike conventional, noninverted two-dimensional electron gases, the Fermi energy in InAs/GaSb can cross a single spin-resolved band, resulting in full spin-orbit polarization. In the fully polarized regime we observe exotic transport phenomena such as quantum Hall plateaus evolving in $e^2/h$ steps and a non-trivial Berry phase.
    • Fabrizio Nichele, Morten Kjaergaard, Henri J. Suominen, Rafal Skolasinski, Michael Wimmer, Binh-Minh Nguyen, Andrey A. Kiselev, Wei Yi, Marko Sokolich, Michael J. Manfra, Fanming Qu, Arjan J. A. Beukman, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Charles M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 016801 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.016801

    • Anomalous Fraunhofer interference in epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • We investigate patterns of critical current as a function of perpendicular and in-plane magnetic fields in superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor (SNS) junctions based on InAs/InGaAs heterostructures with an epitaxial Al layer. This material system is of interest due to its exceptionally good superconductor-semiconductor coupling, as well as large spin-orbit interaction and g-factor in the semiconductor. Thin epitaxial Al allows the application of large in-plane field without destroying superconductivity. For fields perpendicular to the junction, flux focusing results in aperiodic node spacings in the pattern of critical currents known as Fraunhofer patterns by analogy to the related interference effect in optics. Adding an in-plane field yields two further anomalies in the pattern. First, higher order nodes are systematically strengthened, indicating current flow along the edges of the device, as a result of confinement of Andreev states driven by an induced flux dipole; second, asymmetries in the interference appear that depend on the field direction and magnitude. A model is presented, showing good agreement with experiment, elucidating the roles of flux focusing, Zeeman and spin-orbit coupling, and disorder in producing these effects.
    • H. J. Suominen, J. Danon, M. Kjaergaard, K. Flensberg, J. Shabani, C. J. Palmstrøm, F. Nichele, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 95, 035307 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.035307

    • Transparent Semiconductor-Superconductor Interface and Induced Gap in an Epitaxial Heterostructure Josephson Junction - Abstract
      • Measurement of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) in a Josephson junction made from an InAs heterostructure with epitaxial aluminum is used to quantify the highly transparent semiconductor-superconductor interface, indicating near-unity transmission. The observed temperature dependence of MAR does not follow a conventional BCS form, but instead agrees with a model in which the density of states in the quantum well acquires an effective induced gap, in our case 180 {\mu}eV, close to that of the epitaxial superconductor. Carrier density dependence of MAR is investigated using a depletion gate, revealing the subband structure of the semiconductor quantum well, consistent with magnetotransport experiment of the bare InAs performed on the same wafer.
    • M. Kjaergaard, H. J. Suominen, M. P. Nowak, A. R. Akhmerov, J. Shabani, C. J. Palmstrøm, F. Nichele, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 7, 034029 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.7.034029

    • Normal, superconducting and topological regimes of hybrid double quantum dots - Abstract
      • Epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor hybrid materials are an excellent basis for studying mesoscopic and topological superconductivity, as the semiconductor inherits a hard superconducting gap while retaining tunable carrier density. Here, we investigate double-quantum-dot devices made from InAs nanowires with a patterned epitaxial Al two-facet shell that proximitizes two gate-defined segments along the nanowire. We follow the evolution of mesoscopic superconductivity and charging energy in this system as a function of magnetic field and voltage-tuned barriers. Inter-dot coupling is varied from strong to weak using side gates, and the ground state is varied between normal, superconducting, and topological regimes by applying a magnetic field. We identify the topological transition by tracking the spacing between successive cotunneling peaks as a function of axial magnetic field and show that the individual dots host weakly hybridized Majorana modes.
    • D. Sherman, J. S. Yodh, S. M. Albrecht, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 12, 212 (2017) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.227

  • 2016
    • Majorana bound state in a coupled quantum-dot hybrid-nanowire system - Abstract
      • Hybrid nanowires combining semiconductor and superconductor materials appear well suited for the creation, detection, and control of Majorana bound states (MBSs). We demonstrate the emergence of MBSs from coalescing Andreev bound states (ABSs) in a hybrid InAs nanowire with epitaxial Al, using a quantum dot at the end of the nanowire as a spectrometer. Electrostatic gating tuned the nanowire density to a regime of one or a few ABSs. In an applied axial magnetic field, a topological phase emerges in which ABSs move to zero energy and remain there, forming MBSs. We observed hybridization of the MBS with the end-dot bound state, which is in agreement with a numerical model. The ABS/MBS spectra provide parameters that are useful for understanding topological superconductivity in this system.
    • M. T. Deng, S. Vaitiekenas, E. B. Hansen, J. Danon, M. Leijnse, K. Flensberg, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Science 354, 1557-1562 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf3961

    • Quantized conductance doubling and hard gap in a two-dimensional semiconductor–superconductor heterostructure - Abstract
      • The prospect of coupling a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructure to a superconductor opens new research and technology opportunities, including fundamental problems in mesoscopic superconductivity, scalable superconducting electronics, and new topological states of matter. For instance, one route toward realizing topological matter is by coupling a 2D electron gas (2DEG) with strong spin-orbit interaction to an s-wave superconductor. Previous efforts along these lines have been hindered by interface disorder and unstable gating. Here, we report measurements on a gateable InGaAs/InAs 2DEG with patterned epitaxial Al, yielding multilayer devices with atomically pristine interfaces between semiconductor and superconductor. Using surface gates to form a quantum point contact (QPC), we find a hard superconducting gap in the tunneling regime, overcoming the soft-gap problem in 2D superconductor-semiconductor hybrid systems. With the QPC in the open regime, we observe a first conductance plateau at 4e^2/h, as expected theoretically for a normal-QPC-superconductor structure. The realization of a hard-gap semiconductor-superconductor system that is amenable to top-down processing provides a means of fabricating scalable multicomponent hybrid systems for applications in low-dissipation electronics and topological quantum information.
    • M. Kjaergaard, F. Nichele, H. J. Suominen, M. P. Nowak, M. Wimmer, A. R. Akhmerov, J. A. Folk, K. Flensberg, J. Shabani, C. J. Palmstrom, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nat. Commun. 7, 12841 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12841

    • InAs Nanowire with Epitaxial Aluminum as a Single-Electron Transistor with Fixed Tunnel Barriers - Abstract
      • We report on fabrication of single-electron transistors using InAs nanowires with epitaxial aluminium with fixed tunnel barriers made of aluminium oxide. The devices exhibit a hard superconducting gap induced by the proximized aluminium cover shell and they behave as metallic single-electron transistors. In contrast to the typical few channel contacts in semiconducting devices, our approach forms opaque multichannel contacts to a semiconducting wire and thus provides a complementary way to study them. In addition, we confirm that unwanted extra quantum dots can appear at the surface of the nanowire. Their presence is prevented in our devices, and also by inserting a protective layer of GaAs between the InAs and Al, the latter being suitable for standard measurement methods.
    • M. Taupin, E. Mannila, P. Krogstrup, V. F. Maisi, H. Nguyen, S. M. Albrecht, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus, J. P. Pekola
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Applied 6, 054017 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.6.054017

    • Localization lifetime of a many‐body system with periodic constructed disorder - Abstract
      • We show that, in a many-body system, all particles can be strongly confined to the initially occupied sites for a time that scales as a high power of the ratio of the bandwidth of site energies to the hopping amplitude. Such time-domain formulation is complementary to the formulation of the many-body localization of all stationary states with a large localization length. The long localization lifetime is achieved by constructing a periodic sequence of site energies with a large period in a one-dimensional chain. The scaling of the localization lifetime is independent of the number of particles for a broad range of the coupling strength. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical calculations.
    • M. Schecter, M. Shapiro, M. I. Dykman
      DOI: 10.1002/andp.201600366
      1611.05713v1 [pdf]

    • Tunable Magnetic Anisotropy from Higher-Harmonics Exchange Scattering on the Surface of a Topological Insulator - Abstract
      • We show that higher-harmonics exchange scattering from a magnetic adatom on the surface of a three dimensional topological insulator leads to a magnetic anisotropy whose magnitude and sign may be tuned by adjusting the chemical potential of the helical surface band. As chemical potential moves from the Dirac point towards the surface band edge, the surface normal is found to change from magnetic easy, to hard axis. Hexagonal warping is shown to diminish the region with easy axis anisotropy, and to suppress the anisotropy altogether. This indirect contribution can be comparable in magnitude to the intrinsic term arising from crystal field splitting and atomic spin-orbit coupling, and its tunability with chemical potential makes the two contributions experimentally discernible, and endows this source of anisotropy with potentially interesting magnetic functionality.
    • Jens Paaske, Erikas Gaidamauskas
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 177201 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.177201

    • Spiral magnetic order and topological superconductivity in a chain of magnetic adatoms on a two-dimensional superconductor - Abstract
      • We study the magnetic and electronic phases of a 1D magnetic adatom chain on a 2D superconductor. In particular, we confirm the existence of a `self-organized' 1D topologically non-trivial superconducting phase within the set of subgap Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states formed along the magnetic chain. This phase is stabilized by incommensurate spiral correlations within the magnetic chain that arise from the competition between short-range ferromagnetic and long-range antiferromagnetic electron-induced exchange interactions, similar to a recent study for a 3D superconductor [M. Schecter et al. Phys. Rev. B 93, 140503(R) 2016]. The exchange interaction along diagonal directions are also considered and found to display behavior similar to a 1D substrate when close to half filling. We show that the topological phase diagram is robust against local superconducting order parameter suppression and weak substrate spin-orbit coupling. Lastly, we study the effect of a direct ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the adatoms, and find the region of spiral order in the phase diagram to be significantly enlarged in a wide range of the direct exchange coupling.
    • M. H. Christensen, M. Schecter, K. Flensberg, B. M. Andersen, J. Paaske
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 144509 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.144509

    • No-go theorem for a time-reversal invariant topological phase in noninteracting systems coupled to conventional superconductors - Abstract
      • We prove that a system of non-interacting electrons proximity coupled to a conventional s-wave superconductor cannot realize a time reversal invariant topological phase. This is done by showing that for such a system, in either one or two dimensions, the topological invariant of the corresponding symmetry class (DIII) is always trivial. Our results suggest that the pursuit of Majorana bound states in time-reversal invariant systems should be aimed at interacting systems or at proximity to unconventional superconductors.
    • Arbel Haim, Erez Berg, Karsten Flensberg, Yuval Oreg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 161110 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.161110

    • Interaction-driven topological superconductivity in one dimension - Abstract
      • We study one-dimensional topological superconductivity in the presence of time-reversal symmetry. This phase is characterized by having a bulk gap, while supporting a Kramers' pair of zero-energy Majorana bound states at each of its ends. We present a general simple model which is driven into this topological phase in the presence of repulsive electron-electron interactions. We further propose two experimental setups and show that they realize this model at low energies. The first setup is a narrow two-dimensional topological insulator partially covered by a conventional s-wave superconductor, and the second is a semiconductor wire in proximity to an s-wave superconductor. These systems can therefore be used to realize and probe the time-reversal invariant topological superconducting phase. The effect of interactions is studied using both a mean-field approach and a renormalization group analysis.
    • Arbel Haim, Konrad Wölms, Erez Berg, Yuval Oreg, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 115124 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.115124

    • Signatures of Majorana Kramers pairs in superconductor-Luttinger liquid and superconductor-quantum dot-normal lead junctions - Abstract
      • Time-reversal invariant topological superconductors are characterized by the presence of Majorana Kramers pairs localized at defects. One of the transport signatures of Majorana Kramers pairs is the quantized differential conductance of $4e^2/h$ when such a one-dimensional superconductor is coupled to a normal-metal lead. The resonant Andreev reflection, responsible for this phenomenon, can be understood as the boundary condition change for lead electrons at low energies. In this paper, we study the stability of the Andreev reflection fixed point with respect to electron-electron interactions in the Luttinger liquid. We first calculate the phase diagram for the Luttinger liquid-Majorana Kramers pair junction and show that its low-energy properties are determined by Andreev reflection scattering processes in the spin-triplet channel, i.e. the corresponding Andreev boundary conditions are similar to that in a spin-triplet superconductor - normal lead junction. We also study here a quantum dot coupled to a normal lead and a Majorana Kramers pair and investigate the effect of local repulsive interactions leading to an interplay between Kondo and Majorana correlations. Using a combination of renormalization group analysis and slave-boson mean-field theory, we show that the system flows to a new fixed point which is controlled by the Majorana interaction rather than the Kondo coupling. This Majorana fixed point is characterized by correlations between the localized spin and the fermion parity of each spin sector of the topological superconductor. We investigate the stability of the Majorana phase with respect to Gaussian fluctuations.
    • Younghyun Kim, Dong E. Liu, Erikas Gaidamauskas, Jens Paaske, Karsten Flensberg, Roman M. Lutchyn
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 075439 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.075439

    • Quantization of Hall Resistance at the Metallic Interface between an Oxide Insulator and - Abstract
      • The two-dimensional metal forming at the interface between an oxide insulator and SrTiO3 provides new opportunities for oxide electronics. However, the quantum Hall effect, one of the most fascinating effects of electrons confined in two dimensions, remains underexplored at these complex oxide heterointerfaces. Here, we report the experimental observation of quantized Hall resistance in a SrTiO3 heterointerface based on the modulation-doped amorphous-LaAlO$_{3}$/SrTiO$_{3}$ heterostructure, which exhibits both high electron mobility exceeding 10000 cm$^{2}$/Vs and low carrier density on the order of ~10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$. Along with unambiguous Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, the spacing of the quantized Hall resistance suggests that the interface is comprised of a single quantum well with ten parallel conducting two-dimensional subbands. This provides new insight into the electronic structure of conducting oxide interfaces and represents an important step towards designing and understanding advanced oxide devices.
    • Felix Trier, Guenevere E. D. K. Prawiroatmodjo, Zhicheng Zhong, Merlin von Soosten, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Arghya Bhowmik, Juan Maria García Lastra, Yunzhong Chen, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Nini Pryds
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 096804 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.096804

    • Edge transport in the trivial phase of InAs/GaSb - Abstract
      • We present transport and scanning SQUID measurements on InAs/GaSb double quantum wells, a system predicted to be a two-dimensional topological insulator. Top and back gates allow independent control of density and band offset, allowing tuning from the trivial to the topological regime. In the trivial regime, bulk conductivity is quenched but transport persists along the edges, superficially resembling the predicted helical edge-channels in the topological regime. We characterize edge conduction in the trivial regime in a wide variety of sample geometries and measurement configurations, as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and edge length. Despite similarities to studies claiming measurements of helical edge channels, our characterization points to a non-topological origin for these observations.
    • Fabrizio Nichele, Henri J. Suominen, Morten Kjaergaard, Charles M. Marcus, Ebrahim Sajadi, Joshua A. Folk, Fanming Qu, Arjan J. A. Beukman, Folkert K. de Vries, Jasper van Veen, Stevan Nadj-Perge, Leo P. Kouwenhoven, Binh-Minh Nguyen, Andrey A. Kiselev, Wei Yi, Marko Sokolich, Michael J. Manfra, Eric M. Spanton, Kathryn A. Moler
      Journal reference: New J. Phys. 18, 083005 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/8/083005

    • Composite Topological Excitations in Ferromagnet-Superconductor Heterostructures - Abstract
      • We investigate the formation of a new type of composite topological excitation -- the skyrmion-vortex pair (SVP) -- in hybrid systems consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and superconducting layers. Spin-orbit interaction in the superconductor mediates a magnetoelectric coupling between the vortex and the skyrmion, with a sign (attractive or repulsive) that depends on the topological indices of the constituents. We determine the conditions under which a bound SVP is formed, and characterize the range and depth of the effective binding potential through analytical estimates and numerical simulations. Furthermore, we develop a semiclassical description of the coupled skyrmion-vortex dynamics and discuss how SVPs can be controlled by applied spin currents.
    • Kjetil M. D. Hals, Michael Schecter, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 017001 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.017001

    • Supercurrent-induced spin-orbit torques - Abstract
      • We theoretically investigate the supercurrent-induced magnetization dynamics of a two-dimensional lattice of ferromagnetically ordered spins placed on a conventional superconductor with broken spatial inversion symmetry and strong spin-orbit coupling. We develop a phenomenological description of the coupled dynamics of the superconducting condensate and the spin system, and demonstrate that supercurrents produce a reactive spin-orbit torque on the magnetization. By performing a microscopic self-consistent calculation, we show that the spin-orbit torque originates from a spin-polarization of the Cooper pairs due to current-induced spin-triplet correlations. Interestingly, we find that there exists an intrinsic limitation for the maximum achievable spin-orbit torque, which is determined by the coupling strength between the condensate and the spin system. In proximitized hole-doped semiconductors, the maximum achievable spin-orbit torque field is estimated to be on the order of $0.16$ mT, which is comparable to the critical field for current-induced magnetization switching in ferromagnetic semiconductors.
    • Kjetil M. D. Hals
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 115431 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.115431

    • Roadmap to Majorana surface codes - Abstract
      • Surface codes offer a very promising avenue towards fault-tolerant quantum computation. We argue that two-dimensional interacting networks of Majorana bound states in topological superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures hold several distinct advantages in that direction, both concerning the hardware realization and the actual operation of the code. We here discuss how topologically protected logical qubits in this Majorana surface code architecture can be defined, initialized, manipulated, and read out. All physical ingredients needed to implement these operations are routinely used in topologically trivial quantum devices. In particular, we show that by means of quantum interference terms in linear conductance measurements, composite single-electron pumping protocols, and gate-tunable tunnel barriers, the full set of quantum gates required for universal quantum computation can be implemented.
    • S. Plugge, L. A. Landau, E. Sela, A. Altland, K. Flensberg, R. Egger
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 174514 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.174514

    • Quantum charge fluctuations of a proximitized nanowire - Abstract
      • Motivated by recent experiment, we consider charging of a nanowire which is proximitized by a superconductor and connected to a normal-state lead by a single-channel junction. The charge $Q$ of the nanowire is controlled by gate voltage $e{\cal N}_g/C$. A finite conductance of the contact allows for quantum charge fluctuations, making the function $Q(\mathcal{N}_g)$ continuous. It depends on the relation between the superconducting gap $\Delta$ and the effective charging energy $E^*_C$. The latter is determined by the junction conductance, in addition to the geometrical capacitance of the proximitized nanowire. We investigate $Q(\mathcal{N}_g)$ at zero magnetic field $B$, and at fields exceeding the critical value $B_c$ corresponding to the topological phase transition. Unlike the case of $\Delta = 0$, the function $Q(\mathcal{N}_g)$ is analytic even in the limit of negligible level spacing in the nanowire. At $B=0$ and $\Delta>E^*_C$, the maxima of $dQ/d\mathcal{N}_g$ are smeared by $2e$-fluctuations described by a single-channel "charge Kondo" physics, while the $B=0$, $\Delta<e^*_c$ case="case" is="is" described="described" by="by" a="a" crossover="crossover" between="between" the="the" kondo="Kondo" and="and" mixed-valence="mixed-valence" regimes="regimes" of="of" the="the" anderson="Anderson" impurity="impurity" model.="model." in="In" the="the" topological="topological" phase,="phase," $q(\mathcal{n}_g)$="$Q(\mathcal{N}_g)$" is="is" analytic="analytic" function="function" of="of" the="the" gate="gate" voltage="voltage" with="with" $e$-periodic="$e$-periodic" steps.="steps." in="In" the="the" weak="weak" tunneling="tunneling" limit,="limit," $dq/d\mathcal{n}_g$="$dQ/d\mathcal{N}_g$" has="has" peaks="peaks" corresponding="corresponding" to="to" breit-wigner="Breit-Wigner" resonances,="resonances," whereas="whereas" in="In" the="the" strong="strong" tunneling="tunneling" limit="limit" (i.e.,="(i.e.," small="small" reflection="reflection" amplitude="amplitude" $r$="$r$" )=")" these="these" resonances="resonances" are="are" broadened,="broadened," and="and" $dq/d\mathcal{n}_g-e="$dQ/d\mathcal{N}_g-e" \propto="\propto" r\cos(2\pi="r\cos(2\pi" \mathcal{n}_g)$.
    • Roman M. Lutchyn, Karsten Flensberg, Leonid I. Glazman
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 125407 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.125407

    • Noncollinear Spin-Orbit Magnetic Fields in a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot - Abstract
      • We demonstrate experimentally that non-collinear intrinsic spin-orbit magnetic fields can be realized in a curved carbon nanotube two-segment device. Each segment, analyzed in the quantum dot regime, shows near four-fold degenerate shell structure allowing for identification of the spin-orbit coupling and the angle between the two segments. Furthermore, we determine the four unique spin directions of the quantum states for specific shells and magnetic fields. This class of quantum dot systems is particularly interesting when combined with induced superconducting correlations as it may facilitate unconventional superconductivity and detection of Cooper pair entanglement. Our device comprises the necessary elements.
    • Morten Canth Hels, Bernd Braunecker, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 276802 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.276802

    • Time scales for Majorana manipulation using Coulomb blockade in gate-controlled superconducting nanowires - Abstract
      • We numerically compute the low-energy spectrum of a gate-controlled superconducting topological nanowire segmented into two islands, each Josephson-coupled to a bulk superconductor. This device may host two pairs of Majorana bound states and could provide a platform for testing Majorana fusion rules. We analyze the crossover between (i) a charge-dominated regime utilizable for initialization and readout of Majorana bound states, (ii) a single-island regime for dominating inter-island Majorana coupling, (iii) a Josephson-plasmon regime for large coupling to the bulk superconductors, and (iv) a regime of four Majorana bound states allowing for topologically protected Majorana manipulations. From the energy spectrum, we derive conservative estimates for the time scales of a fusion-rule testing protocol proposed recently [arXiv:1511.05153]. We also analyze the steps needed for basic Majorana braiding operations in branched nanowire structures.
    • Michael Hell, Jeroen Danon, Karsten Flensberg, Martin Leijnse
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 035424 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.035424

    • Generic helical edge states due to Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a topological insulator - Abstract
      • We study the helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator without axial spin symmetry due to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Lack of axial spin symmetry can lead to so-called generic helical edge states, which have energy-dependent spin orientation. This opens the possibility of inelastic backscattering and thereby nonquantized transport. Here we find analytically the new dispersion relations and the energy dependent spin orientation of the generic helical edge states in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling within the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model, for both a single isolated edge and for a finite width ribbon. In the single-edge case, we analytically quantify the energy dependence of the spin orientation, which turns out to be weak for a realistic HgTe quantum well. Nevertheless, finite size effects combined with Rashba spin-orbit coupling result in two avoided crossings in the energy dispersions, where the spin orientation variation of the edge states is very significantly increased for realistic parameters. Finally, our analytical results are found to compare well to a numerical tight-binding regularization of the model.
    • Laura Ortiz, Rafael A. Molina, Gloria Platero, Anders Mathias Lunde
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 205431 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.205431

    • Survival, decay, and topological protection in non-Hermitian quantum transport - Abstract
      • Non-Hermitian quantum systems can exhibit unique observables characterizing topologically protected transport in the presence of decay. The topological protection arises from winding numbers associated with non-decaying dark states, which are decoupled from the environment and thus immune to dissipation. Here we develop a classification of topological dynamical phases for one-dimensional quantum systems with periodically-arranged absorbing sites. This is done using the framework of Bloch theory to describe the dark states and associated topological invariants. The observables, such as the average particle displacement over its life span, feature quantized contributions that are governed by the winding numbers of cycles around dark-state submanifolds in the Hamiltonian parameter space. Changes in the winding numbers at topological transitions are manifested in non-analytic behavior of the observables. We discuss the conditions under which nontrivial topological phases may be found, and provide examples that demonstrate how additional constraints or symmetries can lead to rich topological phase diagrams.
    • 1605.07652v1 [pdf]
      Mark S. Rudner, Michael Levin, Leonid S. Levitov

    • Evidence of weak superconductivity at the room-temperature grown - Abstract
      • The two-dimensional electron gas at the crystalline LaAlO$_{3}$/SrTiO$_{3}$ (c-LAO/STO) interface has sparked large interest due to its exotic properties including an intriguing gate-tunable superconducting phase. While there is growing evidence of pronounced spatial inhomogeneity in the conductivity at STO-based interfaces, the consequences for superconductivity remain largely unknown. We study interfaces based on amorphous LAO top layers grown at room temperature (a-LAO/STO) and demonstrate a superconducting phase similar to c-LAO/STO, however, with a gate-tunable critical temperature of $460 \, \mathrm{mK}$, higher than any previously reported values for c-LAO/STO. The dependence of the superconducting critical current on temperature, magnetic field and backgate-controlled doping is found to be consistently described by a model of a random array of Josephson-coupled superconducting domains.
    • Guenevere E. D. K. Prawiroatmodjo, Felix Trier, Dennis V. Christensen, Yunzhong Chen, Nini Pryds, Thomas S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 184504 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.184504

    • Self-organized topological superconductivity in a Yu-Shiba-Rusinov chain - Abstract
      • We study a chain of magnetic moments exchange coupled to a conventional three dimensional superconductor. In the normal state the chain orders into a collinear configuration, while in the superconducting phase we find that ferromagnetism is unstable to the formation of a magnetic spiral state. Beyond weak exchange coupling the spiral wavevector greatly exceeds the inverse superconducting coherence length as a result of the strong spin-spin interaction mediated through the subgap band of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states. Moreover, the simple spin-spin exchange description breaks down as the subgap band crosses the Fermi energy, wherein the spiral phase becomes stabilized by the spontaneous opening of a $p-$wave superconducting gap within the band. This leads to the possibility of electron-driven topological superconductivity with Majorana boundary modes using magnetic atoms on superconducting surfaces.
    • M. Schecter, K. Flensberg, M. H. Christensen, B. M. Andersen, J. Paaske
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 140503 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.140503

    • Milestones Toward Majorana-Based Quantum Computing - Abstract
      • We introduce a scheme for preparation, manipulation, and readout of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting wires with mesoscopic superconducting islands. Our approach synthesizes recent advances in materials growth with tools commonly used in quantum-dot experiments, including gate-control of tunnel barriers and Coulomb effects, charge sensing, and charge pumping. We outline a sequence of milestones interpolating between zero-mode detection and quantum computing that includes (1) detection of fusion rules for non-Abelian anyons using either proximal charge sensors or pumped current; (2) validation of a prototype topological qubit; and (3) demonstration of non-Abelian statistics by braiding in a branched geometry. The first two milestones require only a single wire with two islands, and additionally enable sensitive measurements of the system's excitation gap, quasiparticle poisoning rates, residual Majorana zero-mode splittings, and topological-qubit coherence times. These pre-braiding experiments can be adapted to other manipulation and readout schemes as well.
    • David Aasen, Michael Hell, Ryan V. Mishmash, Andrew Higginbotham, Jeroen Danon, Martin Leijnse, Thomas S. Jespersen, Joshua A. Folk, Charles M. Marcus, Karsten Flensberg, Jason Alicea
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. X 6, 031016 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.031016

    • Filter function formalism beyond pure dephasing and non-Markovian noise in singlet-triplet qubits - Abstract
      • The filter function formalism quantitatively describes the dephasing of a qubit by a bath that causes Gaussian fluctuations in the qubit energies with an arbitrary noise power spectrum. Here, we extend this formalism to account for more general types of noise that couple to the qubit through terms that do not commute with the qubit's bare Hamiltonian. Our approach applies to any power spectrum that generates slow noise fluctuations in the qubit's evolution. We demonstrate our formalism in the case of singlet-triplet qubits subject to both quasistatic nuclear noise and $1/\omega^\alpha$ charge noise and find good agreement with recent experimental findings. This comparison shows the efficacy of our approach in describing real systems and additionally highlights the challenges with distinguishing different types of noise in free induction decay experiments.
    • Edwin Barnes, Mark S. Rudner, Frederico Martins, Filip K. Malinowski, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 121407 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.121407

    • Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands - Abstract
      • Majorana zero modes are quasiparticle excitations in condensed matter systems that have been proposed as building blocks of fault-tolerant quantum computers [1]. They are expected to exhibit non-Abelian particle statistics, in contrast to the usual statistics of fermions and bosons, enabling quantum operations to be performed by braiding isolated modes around one another. Quantum braiding operations are topologically protected insofar as these modes are pinned near zero energy, and the pinning is predicted to be exponential as the modes become spatially separated. Following theoretical proposals, several experiments have identified signatures of Majorana modes in proximitized nanowires and atomic chains, with small mode-splitting potentially explained by hybridization of Majoranas. Here, we use Coulomb-blockade spectroscopy in an InAs nanowire segment with epitaxial aluminum, which forms a proximity-induced superconducting Coulomb island (a Majorana island) that is isolated from normal-metal leads by tunnel barriers, to measure the splitting of near-zero-energy Majorana modes. We observe exponential suppression of energy splitting with increasing wire length. For short devices of a few hundred nanometers, sub-gap state energies oscillate as the magnetic field is varied, as is expected for hybridized Majorana modes. Splitting decreases by a factor of about ten for each half micrometer of increased wire length. For devices longer than about one micrometer, transport in strong magnetic fields occurs through a zero-energy state that is energetically isolated from a continuum, yielding uniformly spaced Coulomb-blockade conductance peaks, consistent with teleportation via Majorana modes. Our results help explain the trivial-to-topological transition in finite systems and to quantify the scaling of topological protection with end-mode separation.
    • S. M. Albrecht, A. P. Higginbotham, M. Madsen, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygård, P. Krogstrup, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature 531, 206 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nature17162

    • Charged topological entanglement entropy - Abstract
      • A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases in 2+1 dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is non-zero for non-trivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.
    • Shunji Matsuura, Xueda Wen, Ling-Yan Hung, Shinsei Ryu
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 195113 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.195113

    • Phase-tunable Majorana bound states in a topological N-SNS junction - Abstract
      • We theoretically study the differential conductance of a one-dimensional normal-superconductor-normal-superconductor (N-SNS) junction with a phase bias applied between the two superconductors. We consider specifically a junction formed by a spin-orbit coupled semiconducting nanowire with regions of the nanowire having superconducting pairing induced by a bulk $s$-wave superconductor. When the nanowire is tuned into a topologically non-trivial phase by a Zeeman field, it hosts zero-energy Majorana modes at its ends as well as at the interface between the two superconductors. The phase-dependent splitting of the Majorana modes gives rise to features in the differential conductance that offer a clear distinction between the topologically trivial and non-trivial phases. We calculate the transport properties of the junction numerically and also present a simple analytical model that captures the main properties of the predicted tunneling spectroscopy.
    • Esben Bork Hansen, Jeroen Danon, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 094501 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.094501

    • Statistical theory of relaxation of high-energy electrons in quantum Hall edge states - Abstract
      • We investigate theoretically the energy exchange between electrons of two co-propagating, out-of-equilibrium edge states with opposite spin polarization in the integer quantum Hall regime. A quantum dot tunnel-coupled to one of the edge states locally injects electrons at high energy. Thereby a narrow peak in the energy distribution is created at high energy above the Fermi level. A second downstream quantum dot performs an energy resolved measurement of the electronic distribution function. By varying the distance between the two dots, we are able to follow every step of the energy exchange and relaxation between the edge states - even analytically under certain conditions. In the absence of translational invariance along the edge, e.g. due to the presence of disorder, energy can be exchanged by non-momentum conserving two-particle collisions. For weakly broken translational invariance, we show that the relaxation is described by coupled Fokker-Planck equations. From these we find that relaxation of the injected electrons can be understood statistically as a generalized drift-diffusion process in energy space for which we determine the drift-velocity and the dynamical diffusion parameter. Finally, we provide a physically appealing picture in terms of individual edge state heating as a result of the relaxation of the injected electrons.
    • Anders Mathias Lunde, Simon E. Nigg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 94, 045409 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.045409

    • Effects of spin-orbit coupling and spatial symmetries on the Josephson current in SNS junctions - Abstract
      • We present an analysis of the symmetries of the interference pattern of critical currents through a two-dimensional superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junction, taking into account Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction, an arbitrarily oriented magnetic field, disorder, and structural asymmetries. We relate the symmetries of the pattern to the absence or presence of symmetries in the Hamiltonian, which provides a qualitative connection between easily measurable quantities and the spin-orbit coupling and other symmetries of the junction. We support our analysis with numerical calculations of the Josephson current based on a perturbative expansion up to eighth order in tunnel coupling between the normal region and the superconductors.
    • Asbjørn Rasmussen, Jeroen Danon, Henri Suominen, Fabrizio Nichele, Morten Kjaergaard, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 155406 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.155406

    • Noise Suppression Using Symmetric Exchange Gates in Spin Qubits - Abstract
      • We demonstrate a substantial improvement in the spin-exchange gate using symmetric control instead of conventional detuning in GaAs spin qubits, up to a factor-of-six increase in the quality factor of the gate. For symmetric operation, nanosecond voltage pulses are applied to the barrier that controls the interdot potential between quantum dots, modulating the exchange interaction while maintaining symmetry between the dots. Excellent agreement is found with a model that separately includes electrical and nuclear noise sources for both detuning and symmetric gating schemes. Unlike exchange control via detuning, the decoherence of symmetric exchange rotations is dominated by rotation-axis fluctuations due to nuclear field noise rather than direct exchange noise.
    • Frederico Martins, Filip K. Malinowski, Peter D. Nissen, Edwin Barnes, Saeed Fallahi, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Michael J. Manfra, Charles M. Marcus, Ferdinand Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 116801 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.116801

    • Quantum impurities: from mobile Josephson junctions to depletons - Abstract
      • We overview the main features of mobile impurities moving in one-dimensional superfluid backgrounds by modeling it as a mobile Josephson junction, which leads naturally to the periodic dispersion of the impurity. The dissipation processes, such as radiative friction and quantum viscosity, are shown to result from the interaction of the collective phase difference with the background phonons. We develop a more realistic depleton model of an impurity-hole bound state that provides a number of exact results interpolating between the semiclassical weakly-interacting picture and the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau regime. We also discuss the physics of a trapped impurity, relevant to current experiments with ultra cold atoms.
    • Michael Schecter, Dimitri M. Gangardt, Alex Kamenev
      Journal reference: New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 065002 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/065002

    • Gatemon Benchmarking and Two-Qubit Operations - Abstract
      • Recent experiments have demonstrated superconducting transmon qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions. These hybrid gatemon qubits utilize field effect tunability characteristic for semiconductors to allow complete qubit control using gate voltages, potentially a technological advantage over conventional flux-controlled transmons. Here, we present experiments with a two-qubit gatemon circuit. We characterize qubit coherence and stability and use randomized benchmarking to demonstrate single-qubit gate errors below 0.7% for all gates, including voltage-controlled $Z$ rotations. We show coherent capacitive coupling between two gatemons and coherent swap operations. Finally, we perform a two-qubit controlled-phase gate with an estimated fidelity of 91%, demonstrating the potential of gatemon qubits for building scalable quantum processors.
    • L. Casparis, T. W. Larsen, M. S. Olsen, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, K. D. Petersson, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 150505 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.150505

    • Two-dimensional epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures: A platform for topological superconducting networks - Abstract
      • Progress in the emergent field of topological superconductivity relies on synthesis of new material combinations, combining superconductivity, low density, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). For example, theory [1-4] indicates that the interface between a one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor (Sm) with strong SOC and a superconductor (S) hosts Majorana modes with nontrivial topological properties [5-8]. Recently, epitaxial growth of Al on InAs nanowires was shown to yield a high quality S-Sm system with uniformly transparent interfaces [9] and a hard induced gap, indicted by strongly suppressed sub gap tunneling conductance [10]. Here we report the realization of a two-dimensional (2D) InAs/InGaAs heterostructure with epitaxial Al, yielding a planar S-Sm system with structural and transport characteristics as good as the epitaxial wires. The realization of 2D epitaxial S-Sm systems represent a significant advance over wires, allowing extended networks via top-down processing. Among numerous potential applications, this new material system can serve as a platform for complex networks of topological superconductors with gate-controlled Majorana zero modes [1-4]. We demonstrate gateable Josephson junctions and a highly transparent 2D S-Sm interface based on the product of excess current and normal state resistance.
    • J. Shabani, M. Kjaergaard, H. J. Suominen, Younghyun Kim, F. Nichele, K. Pakrouski, T. Stankevic, R. M. Lutchyn, P. Krogstrup, R. Feidenhans'l, S. Kraemer, C. Nayak, M. Troyer, C. M. Marcus, C. J. Palmstrøm
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 155402 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.155402

    • Braiding properties of Majorana Kramers pairs - Abstract
      • We consider the braiding of Kramers pairs of Majorana bound states. We derive the most general transformation on the many-body ground state that is applied as the result of such a braiding process. The result is derived in the context of a simple toy model, but we will show that it has the most general form that is compatible with local and global conservation of electron parity. In accordance with earlier work the resulting transformation turns out to be path dependent, which shows that Kramers pairs of Majorana bound states cannot be used for topological quantum computation. We also discuss under which conditions the result is path independent and corresponds to two independent exchanges of pairs of Majorana bound states.
    • Konrad Wölms, Ady Stern, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 93, 045417 (2016) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.045417

  • 2015
    • Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in phase-biased superconductor–quantum dot–superconductor junctions - Abstract
      • We study the effects of a phase difference on Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states in a spinful Coulomb-blockaded quantum dot contacted by a superconducting loop. In the limit where charging energy is larger than the superconducting gap, we determine the subgap excitation spectrum, the corresponding supercurrent, and the differential conductance as measured by a normal-metal tunnel probe. In absence of a phase difference only one linear combination of the superconductor lead electrons couples to the spin, which gives a single YSR state. With finite phase difference, however, it is effectively a two-channel scattering problem and therefore an additional state emerges from the gap edge. The energy of the phase-dependent YSR states depend on the gate voltage and one state can cross zero energy twice inside the valley with odd occupancy. These crossings are shifted by the phase difference towards the charge degeneracy points, corresponding to larger exchange couplings. Moreover, the zero-energy crossings give rise to resonant peaks in the differential conductance with magnitude $4e^2/h$. Finally, we demonstrate that the quantum fluctuations of the dot spin do not alter qualitatively any of the results.
    • Gediminas Kiršanskas, Moshe Goldstein, Karsten Flensberg, Leonid I. Glazman, Jens Paaske
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 92, 235422 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.235422

    • Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties of InAs nanowires with local oxidation enabled by substrate micro-trenches and laser irradiation - Abstract
      • The thermal gradient along indium-arsenide nanowires was engineered by a combination of fabricated micro- trenches in the supporting substrate and focused laser irradiation. This allowed local control of thermally activated oxidation reactions of the nanowire on the scale of the diffraction limit. The locality of the oxidation was detected by micro-Raman mapping, and the results were found consistent with numerical simulations of the temperature profile. Applying the technique to nanowires in electrical devices the locally oxidized nanowires remained conducting with a lower conductance as expected for an effectively thinner conducting core.
    • R. Tanta, M. H. Madsen, Z. Liao, P. Krogstrup, T. Vosch, J. Nygard, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 243101 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4937442

    • Patterning of high mobility electron gases at complex oxide interfaces - Abstract
      • Oxide interfaces provide an opportunity for electronics. However, patterning of electron gases at complex oxide interfaces is challenging. In particular, patterning of complex oxides while preserving a high electron mobility remains underexplored and inhibits the study of quantum mechanical effects where extended electron mean free paths are paramount. This letter presents an effective patterning strategy of both the amorphous-LaAlO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ (a-LAO/STO) and modulation-doped amorphous- LaAlO$_3$/La$_{7/8}$Sr$_{1/8}$MnO$_3$/SrTiO$_3$ (a-LAO/LSM/STO) oxide interfaces. Our patterning is based on selective wet etching of amorphous-LSM (a-LSM) thin films which acts as a hard mask during subsequent depositions. Strikingly, the patterned modulation-doped interface shows electron mobilities up to ~8,700 cm$^2$/Vs at 2 K, which is among the highest reported values for patterned conducting complex oxide interfaces that usually are ~1,000 cm$^2$/Vs at 2 K.
    • Felix Trier, Guenevere E. D. K. Prawiroatmodjo, Merlin von Soosten, Dennis Valbjørn Christensen, Thomas Sand Jespersen, Yunzhong Chen, Nini Pryds
      Journal reference: Applied Physics Letters 107, 191604 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4935553

    • Environmental Coulomb blockade of topological superconductor-normal metal junctions - Abstract
      • We study charge transport of a topological superconductor connected to different electromagnetic environments using a low-energy description where only the Majorana bound states in the superconductor are included. Extending earlier findings who found a crossover between perfect Andreev reflection with conductance $2e^2/h$ to a regime with blocked transport when the resistance of the environment is larger than $2e^2/h$, we consider Majorana bound states coupled to metallic dots. in particular, we study two topological superconducting leads connected by a metallic quantum dot in both the weak tunneling and strong tunneling regimes. For weak tunneling, we project onto the most relevant charge states. For strong tunneling, we start from the Andreev fixed point and integrate out charge fluctuations which gives an effective low-energy model for the non-perturbative gate-voltage modulated cotunneling current. In both regimes and in contrast to cotunneling with normal leads, the conductance is temperature independent because of the resonant Andreev reflections, which are included to all orders.
    • Konrad Wölms, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 92, 165428 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.165428

    • Probing transverse magnetic anisotropy by electronic transport through a single-molecule magnet - Abstract
      • By means of electronic transport, we study the transverse magnetic anisotropy of an individual Fe$_4$ single-molecule magnet (SMM) embedded in a three-terminal junction. In particular, we determine in situ the transverse anisotropy of the molecule from the pronounced intensity modulations of the linear conductance, which are observed as a function of applied magnetic field. The proposed technique works at temperatures exceeding the energy scale of the tunnel splittings of the SMM. We deduce that the transverse anisotropy for a single Fe$_4$ molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value.
    • M. Misiorny, E. Burzurí, R. Gaudenzi, K. Park, M. Leijnse, M. R. Wegewijs, J. Paaske, A. Cornia, H. S. J. van der Zant
      Journal reference: Physical Review B 91, 035442 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.035442

    • Nonlocal damping of helimagnets in one-dimensional interacting electron systems - Abstract
      • We investigate the magnetization relaxation of a one-dimensional helimagnetic system coupled to interacting itinerant electrons. The relaxation is assumed to result from the emission of plasmons, the elementary excitations of the one-dimensional interacting electron system, caused by slow changes of the magnetization profile. This dissipation mechanism leads to a highly nonlocal form of magnetization damping that is strongly dependent on the electron-electron interaction. Forward scattering processes lead to a spatially constant damping kernel, while backscattering processes produce a spatially oscillating contribution. Due to the nonlocal damping, the thermal fluctuations become spatially correlated over the entire system. We estimate the characteristic magnetization relaxation times for magnetic quantum wires and nuclear helimagnets.
    • Kjetil M. D. Hals, Karsten Flensberg, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 92, 094403 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.094403

    • Semiclassical theory of persistent current fluctuations in ballistic chaotic rings - Abstract
      • The persistent current in a mesoscopic ring has a Gaussian distribution with small non-Gaussian corrections. Here we report a semiclassical calculation of the leading non-Gaussian correction, which is described by the three-point correlation function. The semiclassical approach is applicable to systems in which the electron dynamics is ballistic and chaotic, and includes the dependence on the Ehrenfest time. At small but finite Ehrenfest times, the non-Gaussian fluctuations are enhanced with respect to the limit of zero Ehrenfest time.
    • Piet W. Brouwer, Jeroen Danon
      DOI: 10.1016/j.physe.2015.08.004
      1507.05422v1 [pdf]

    • Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall - Abstract
      • We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta/Co20Fe60B20/MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show for the first time depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents parallel to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared to previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) and shows the sensitivity of the spin-orbit torque to the precise DW structure and pinning sites.
    • Tomek Schulz, Oscar Alejos, Eduardo Martinez, Kjetil M. D. Hals, Karin Garcia, Kyujoon Lee, Roberto Lo Conte, Gurucharan V. Karnad, Simone Moretti, Berthold Ocker, Dafiné Ravelosona, Arne Brataas, Mathias Kläui
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4931429
      1507.02435v1 [pdf]

    • Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes - Abstract
      • Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two. In single quantum dots defined in short lengths of nanotube, the energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are revealed by Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli blockade. This can be exploited to read out spin and valley qubits, and to measure the decay of these states through coupling to nuclear spins and phonons. A second unique property of carbon nanotubes is that the combination of valley freedom and electron-electron interactions in one dimension strongly modifies their transport behaviour. Interaction between electrons inside and outside a quantum dot is manifested in SU(4) Kondo behavior and level renormalization. Interaction within a dot leads to Wigner molecules and more complex correlated states. This review takes an experimental perspective informed by recent advances in theory. As well as the well-understood overall picture, we also state clearly open questions for the field. These advances position nanotubes as a leading system for the study of spin and valley physics in one dimension where electronic disorder and hyperfine interaction can both be reduced to a very low level.
    • E. A. Laird, F. Kuemmeth, G. Steele, K. Grove-Rasmussen, J. Nygård, K. Flensberg, L. P. Kouwenhoven
      Journal reference: Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 703 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.87.703

    • Spin-motive forces and current-induced torques in ferromagnets - Abstract
      • In metallic ferromagnets, the spin-transfer torque and spin-motive force are known to exhibit a reciprocal relationship. Recent experiments on ferromagnets with strong spin-orbit coupling have revealed a rich complexity in the interaction between itinerant charge carriers and magnetization, but a full understanding of this coupled dynamics is lacking. Here, we develop a general phenomenology of the two reciprocal processes of charge pumping by spin-motive forces and current-driven magnetization dynamics. The formalism is valid for spin-orbit coupling of any strength and presents a systematic scheme for deriving all possible torque and charge-pumping terms that obey the symmetry requirements imposed by the point group of the system. We demonstrate how the different charge pumping and torque contributions are connected via the Onsager reciprocal relations. The formalism is applied to two important classes of systems: isotropic ferromagnets with non-uniform magnetization and homogeneous ferromagnets described by the point group $C_{2v}$.
    • Kjetil M. D. Hals, Arne Brataas
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 91, 214401 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.214401

    • Interaction effects on proximity-induced superconductivity in semiconducting nanowires - Abstract
      • We investigate the effect of electron-electron interactions on proximity-induced $s$-wave superconductivity in one-dimensional nanowires. We treat the interactions on a self-consistent mean-field level, and find an analytic expression for the effective pairing potential in the presence of interactions, valid for a weakly tunnel coupled wire. We show that for a set of two nanowires placed in parallel on a superconducting substrate, the interaction-induced reduction of the pairing energy could result in the effective interwire pairing potential exceeding the intrawire potential, which is one of the requirements for creating a time-reversal symmetric topological superconducting state in such a two-wire system.
    • Jeroen Danon, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 91, 165425 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.165425

    • Semiconductor-Nanowire-Based Superconducting Qubit - Abstract
      • We introduce a hybrid qubit based on a semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer. Josephson energy of the transmon-like device ("gatemon") is controlled by an electrostatic gate that depletes carriers in a semiconducting weak link region. Strong coupling to an on-chip microwave cavity and coherent qubit control via gate voltage pulses is demonstrated, yielding reasonably long relaxation times (0.8 {\mu}s) and dephasing times (1 {\mu}s), exceeding gate operation times by two orders of magnitude, in these first-generation devices. Because qubit control relies on voltages rather than fluxes, dissipation in resistive control lines is reduced, screening reduces crosstalk, and the absence of flux control allows operation in a magnetic field, relevant for topological quantum information.
    • T. W. Larsen, K. D. Petersson, F. Kuemmeth, T. S. Jespersen, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 127001 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.127001

    • Spin-Lattice Order in One-Dimensional Conductors: Beyond the RKKY Effect - Abstract
      • We investigate magnetic order in a lattice of classical spins coupled to an isotropic gas of one-dimensional (1d) conduction electrons via local exchange interactions. The frequently discussed Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) effective exchange model for this system predicts that spiral order is always preferred. Here we consider the problem nonperturbatively, and find that such order vanishes above a critical value of the exchange coupling that depends strongly on the lattice spacing. The critical coupling tends to zero as the lattice spacing becomes commensurate with the Fermi wave vector, signalling the breakdown of the perturbative RKKY picture, and spiral order, even at weak coupling. We provide the exact phase diagram for arbitrary exchange coupling and lattice spacing, and discuss its stability. Our results shed new light on the problem of utilizing a spiral spin-lattice state to drive a one-dimensional superconductor into a topological phase.
    • Michael Schecter, Mark S. Rudner, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 247205 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.247205

    • Hard gap in epitaxial semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Many present and future applications of superconductivity would benefit from electrostatic control of carrier density and tunneling rates, the hallmark of semiconductor devices. One particularly exciting application is the realization of topological superconductivity as a basis for quantum information processing. Proposals in this direction based on proximity effect in semiconductor nanowires are appealing because the key ingredients are currently in hand. However, previous instances of proximitized semiconductors show significant tunneling conductance below the superconducting gap, suggesting a continuum of subgap states---a situation that nullifies topological protection. Here, we report a hard superconducting gap induced by proximity effect in a semiconductor, using epitaxial Al-InAs superconductor-semiconductor nanowires. The hard gap, along with favorable material properties and gate-tunability, makes this new hybrid system attractive for a number of applications, as well as fundamental studies of mesoscopic superconductivity.
    • W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, T. S. Jespersen, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 10, 232 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.306

    • Parity lifetime of bound states in a proximitized semiconductor nanowire - Abstract
      • Quasiparticle excitations can compromise the performance of superconducting devices, causing high frequency dissipation, decoherence in Josephson qubits, and braiding errors in proposed Majorana-based topological quantum computers. Quasiparticle dynamics have been studied in detail in metallic superconductors but remain relatively unexplored in semiconductor-superconductor structures, which are now being intensely pursued in the context of topological superconductivity. To this end, we introduce a new physical system comprised of a gate-confined semiconductor nanowire with an epitaxially grown superconductor layer, yielding an isolated, proximitized nanowire segment. We identify Andreev-like bound states in the semiconductor via bias spectroscopy, determine the characteristic temperatures and magnetic fields for quasiparticle excitations, and extract a parity lifetime (poisoning time) of the bound state in the semiconductor exceeding 10 ms.
    • A. P. Higginbotham, S. M. Albrecht, G. Kirsanskas, W. Chang, F. Kuemmeth, P. Krogstrup, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, K. Flensberg, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Physics 11, 1017 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys3461

    • Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires - Abstract
      • Controlling the properties of semiconductor/metal interfaces is a powerful method for designing functionality and improving the performance of electrical devices. Recently semiconductor/superconductor hybrids have appeared as an important example where the atomic scale uniformity of the interface plays a key role for the quality of the induced superconducting gap. Here we present epitaxial growth of semiconductor-metal core-shell nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy, a method that provides a conceptually new route to controlled electrical contacting of nanostructures and for designing devices for specialized applications such as topological and gate-controlled superconducting electronics. Our materials of choice, InAs/Al, are grown with epitaxially matched single plane interfaces, and alternative semiconductor/metal combinations allowing epitaxial interface matching in nanowires are discussed. We formulate the grain growth kinetics of the metal phase in general terms of continuum parameters and bicrystal symmetries. The method realizes the ultimate limit of uniform interfaces and appears to solve the soft-gap problem in superconducting hybrid structures.
    • P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, T. S. Jespersen
      Journal reference: Nature Materials 14, 400 (2015) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nmat4176

  • 2014
    • Local Adiabatic Mixing of Kramers Pairs of Majorana Bound States - Abstract
      • We consider Kramers pairs of Majorana bound states under adiabatic time evolution. This is important for the prospects of using such bound states as parity qubits. We show that local adiabatic perturbations can cause a rotation in the space spanned by the Kramers pair. Hence the quantum information is unprotected against local perturbations, in contrast to the case of single localized Majorana bound states in systems with broken time reversal symmetry. We give an analytical and a numerical example for such a rotation, and specify sufficient conditions under which a rotation is avoided. We give a general scheme for determining when these conditions are satisfied, and exemplify it with a general model of a quasi 1D time reversal symmetric topological superconductor.
    • Konrad Wölms, Ady Stern, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 246401 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.246401

    • Tunnel spectroscopy of Majorana bound states in topological superconductor/quantum dot Josephson junctions - Abstract
      • We theoretically investigate electronic transport through a junction where a quantum dot (QD) is tunnel coupled on both sides to semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit interaction and proximity-induced superconductivity. The results are presented as stability diagrams, i.e., the differential conductance as a function of the bias voltage applied across the junction and the gate voltage used to control the electrostatic potential on the QD. A small applied magnetic field splits and modifies the resonances due to the Zeeman splitting of the QD level. Above a critical field strength, Majorana bound states (MBS) appear at the interfaces between the two superconducting nanowires and the QD, resulting in a qualitative change of the entire stability diagram, suggesting this setup as a promising platform to identify MBS. Our calculations are based on a nonequilibrium Green's function description and is exact when Coulomb interactions on the QD can be neglected. In addition, we develop a simple pictorial view of the involved transport processes, which is equivalent to a description in terms of multiple Andreev reflections, but provides an alternative way to understand the role of the QD level in enhancing transport for certain gate and bias voltages. We believe that this description will be useful in future studies of interacting QDs coupled to superconducting leads (with or without MBS), where it can be used to develop a perturbation expansion in the tunnel coupling.
    • Guang-Yao Huang, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg, Hongqi Xu
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 90, 214507 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.214507

    • Gilbert Damping in Noncollinear Ferromagnets - Abstract
      • The precession and damping of a collinear magnetization displaced from its equilibrium are described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. For a noncollinear magnetization, it is not known how the damping should be described. We use first-principles scattering theory to investigate the damping in one-dimensional transverse domain walls (DWs) of the important ferromagnetic alloy Ni$_{80}$Fe$_{20}$ and interpret the results in terms of phenomenological models. The damping is found to depend not only on the magnetization texture but also on the specific dynamic modes of Bloch and N\'eel DWs. Even in the highly disordered Ni$_{80}$Fe$_{20}$ alloy, the damping is found to be remarkably nonlocal.
    • Zhe Yuan, Kjetil M. D. Hals, Yi Liu, Anton A. Starikov, Arne Brataas, Paul J. Kelly
      Journal reference: Physical Review Letters 113, 266603 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.266603

    • Magnonic charge pumping via spin–orbit coupling - Abstract
      • The interplay between spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom has led to the development of spintronic devices like spin-torque oscillators, spin-logic devices, and spin-transfer torque magnetic random-access memories. In this development spin pumping, the process where pure spin-currents are generated from magnetisation precession, has proved to be a powerful method for probing spin physics and magnetisation dynamics. The effect originates from direct conversion of low energy quantised spin-waves in the magnet, known as magnons, into a flow of spins from the precessing magnet to adjacent normal metal leads. The spin-pumping phenomenon represents a convenient way to electrically detect magnetisation dynamics, however, precessing magnets have been limited so far to pump pure spin currents, which require a secondary spin-charge conversion element such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle or multi-layer layouts to be detectable. Here, we report the experimental observation of charge pumping in which a precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current, demonstrating direct conversion of magnons into high-frequency currents via the relativistic spin-orbit interaction. The generated electric current, differently from spin currents generated by spin-pumping, can be directly detected without the need of any additional spin to charge conversion mechanism and amplitude and phase information about the relativistic current-driven magnetisation dynamics. The charge-pumping phenomenon is generic and gives a deeper understanding of the recently observed spin-orbit torques, of which it is the reciprocal effect and which currently attract interest for their potential in manipulating magnetic information. Furthermore, charge pumping provides a novel link between magnetism and electricity and may find application in sourcing alternating electric currents.
    • Chiara Ciccarelli, Kjetil M. D. Hals, Andrew Irvine, Vit Novak, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Hidekazu Kurebayashi, Arne Brataas, Andrew Ferguson
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.252
      1411.2779v1 [pdf]

    • Designing - Abstract
      • We propose and analyze a new way of using $\pi$ stacking to design molecular junctions that either enhance or suppress a phononic heat current, but at the same time remain conductors for an electric current. Such functionality is highly desirable in thermoelectric energy converters, as well as in other electronic components where heat dissipation should be minimized or maximized. We suggest a molecular design consisting of two masses coupled to each other with one mass coupled to each lead. By having a small coupling (spring constant) between the masses, it is possible to either reduce, or perhaps more surprisingly enhance the phonon conductance. We investigate a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use first principle calculations to extract model parameters for a number of specific molecular realizations, confirming that our proposal can indeed be realized using standard molecular building blocks.
    • Gediminas Kiršanskas, Qian Li, Karsten Flensberg, Gemma C. Solomon, Martin Leijnse
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 233102 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4903340

    • Quantum interference in off-resonant transport through single molecules - Abstract
      • We provide a simple set of rules for predicting interference effects in off-resonant transport through single-molecule junctions. These effects fall in two classes, showing respectively an odd or an even number of nodes in the linear conductance within a given molecular charge state, and we demonstrate how to decide the interference class directly from the contacting geometry. For neutral alternant hydrocarbons, we employ the Coulson-Rushbrooke-McLachlan pairing theorem to show that the interference class is decided simply by tunneling on and off the molecule from same, or different sublattices. More generally, we investigate a range of smaller molecules by means of exact diag- onalization combined with a perturbative treatment of the molecule-lead tunnel coupling. While these results generally agree well with GW calculations, they are shown to be at odds with simpler mean-field treatments. For molecules with spin-degenerate ground states, we show that for most junctions, interference causes no transmission nodes, but argue that it may lead to a non-standard gate-dependence of the zero-bias Kondo resonance.
    • Kim G. L. Pedersen, Mikkel Strange, Martin Leijnse, Per Hedegård, Gemma Solomon, Jens Paaske
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 90, 125413 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.125413

    • Multilevel Interference Resonances in Strongly Driven Three-Level Systems - Abstract
      • We study multi-photon resonances in a strongly-driven three-level quantum system, where one level is periodically swept through a pair of levels with constant energy separation $E$. Near the multi-photon resonance condition $n\hbar\omega = E$, where $n$ is an integer, we find qualitatively different behavior for $n$ even or odd. We explain this phenomenon in terms of families of interfering trajectories of the multi-level system. Remarkably, the behavior is insensitive to fluctuations of the energy of the driven level, and survives deep into the strong dephasing regime. The setup can be relevant for a variety of solid state and atomic or molecular systems. In particular, it provides a clear mechanism to explain recent puzzling experimental observations in strongly-driven double quantum dots.
    • Jeroen Danon, Mark S. Rudner
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 247002 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.247002

    • Hole Spin Coherence in a Ge/Si Heterostructure Nanowire - Abstract
      • Relaxation and dephasing of hole spins are measured in a gate-defined Ge/Si nanowire double quantum dot using a fast pulsed-gate method and dispersive readout. An inhomogeneous dephasing time $T_2^* \sim 0.18~\mathrm{\mu s}$ exceeds corresponding measurements in III-V semiconductors by more than an order of magnitude, as expected for predominately nuclear-spin-free materials. Dephasing is observed to be exponential in time, indicating the presence of a broadband noise source, rather than Gaussian, previously seen in systems with nuclear-spin-dominated dephasing.
    • A. P. Higginbotham, T. W. Larsen, J. Yao, H. Yan, C. M. Lieber, C. M. Marcus, F. Kuemmeth
      Journal reference: Nano Letters 14, 3582 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1021/nl501242b

    • Spin-wave-induced correction to the conductivity of ferromagnets - Abstract
      • We calculate the correction to the conductivity of a disordered ferromagnetic metal due to spin-wave-mediated electron--electron interactions. This correction is the generalization of the Altshuler-Aronov correction to spin-wave-mediated interactions. We derive a general expression for the conductivity correction to lowest order in the spin-wave-mediated interaction and for the limit that the exchange splitting $\Delta$ is much smaller than the Fermi energy. For a "clean" ferromagnet with $\Delta\tau_{\rm el}/\hbar \gg 1$, with $\tau_{\rm el}$ the mean time for impurity scattering, we find a correction $\delta \sigma \propto -T^{5/2}$ at temperatures $T$ above the spin wave gap. In the opposite, "dirty" limit, $\Delta\tau_{\rm el}/\hbar \ll 1$, the correction is a non-monotonous function of temperature.
    • Jeroen Danon, Alessandro Ricottone, Piet W. Brouwer
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 90, 024405 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.024405

    • Majorana Bound States in Two-Channel Time-Reversal-Symmetric Nanowire Systems - Abstract
      • We consider time-reversal-symmetric two-channel semiconducting quantum wires proximity coupled to an s-wave superconductor. We analyze the requirements for a nontrivial topological phase and find that necessary conditions are 1) the determinant of the pairing matrix in channel space must be negative, 2) inversion symmetry must be broken, and 3) the two channels must have different spin-orbit couplings. The first condition can be implemented in semiconducting nanowire systems where interactions suppress intra-channel pairing, while the inversion symmetry can be broken by tuning the chemical potentials of the channels. For the case of collinear spin-orbit directions, we find a general expression for the topological invariant by block diagonalization into two blocks with chiral symmetry only. By projection to the low-energy sector, we solve for the zero modes explicitly and study the details of the gap closing, which in the general case happens at finite momenta.
    • Erikas Gaidamauskas, Jens Paaske, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 126402 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.126402

    • Antilocalization of Coulomb Blockade in a Ge/Si Nanowire - Abstract
      • The distribution of Coulomb blockade peak heights as a function of magnetic field is investigated experimentally in a Ge-Si nanowire quantum dot. Strong spin-orbit coupling in this hole-gas system leads to antilocalization of Coulomb blockade peaks, consistent with theory. In particular, the peak height distribution has its maximum away from zero at zero magnetic field, with an average that decreases with increasing field. Magnetoconductance in the open-wire regime places a bound on the spin-orbit length ($l_{so}$ < 20 nm), consistent with values extracted in the Coulomb blockade regime ($l_{so}$ < 25 nm).
    • A. P. Higginbotham, F. Kuemmeth, T. W. Larsen, M. Fitzpatrick, J. Yao, H. Yan, C. M. Lieber, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 216806 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.216806

    • Dynamics of spin-flip photon-assisted tunneling - Abstract
      • We present time-resolved measurements of spin-flip photon-assisted tunneling and spin-flip relaxation in a doubly occupied double quantum dot. The photon-assisted excitation rate as a function of magnetic field indicates that spin-orbit coupling is the dominant mechanism behind the spin-flip under the present conditions. We are able to extract the resulting effective `spin-flip tunneling' energy, which is found to be three orders of magnitude smaller than the regular spin-conserving tunneling energy. We also measure the relaxation and dephasing times of a qubit formed out of two two-electron states with different spin and charge configurations.
    • F. R. Braakman, J. Danon, L. R. Schreiber, W. Wegscheider, L. M. K. Vandersypen
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 89, 075417 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.075417

    • Coherent Operations and Screening in Multielectron Spin Qubits - Abstract
      • The performance of multi-electron spin qubits is examined by comparing exchange oscillations in coupled single-electron and multi-electron quantum dots in the same device. Fast (> 1 GHz) exchange oscillations with a quality factor Q > 15 are found for the multi-electron case, compared to Q ~ 2 for the single-electron case, the latter consistent with previous experiments. A model of dephasing that includes voltage and hyperfine noise is developed that is in good agreement with both single- and multi-electron data, though in both cases additional exchange-independent dephasing is needed to obtain quantitative agreement across a broad parameter range.
    • A. P. Higginbotham, F. Kuemmeth, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 026801 (2014) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.026801

  • 2013
    • Spin-wave-induced corrections to the electronic density of states in metallic ferromagnets - Abstract
      • We calculate the correction to the electronic density of states in a disordered ferromagnetic metal induced by spin-wave mediated interaction between the electrons. Our calculation is valid for the case that the exchange splitting in the ferromagnet is much smaller than the Fermi energy, but we make no assumption on the relative magnitude of the exchange splitting and the elastic electronic scattering time. In the "clean limit", where the exchange splitting is much larger than the electronic scattering rate, we find a correction with a T^{d/2} temperature dependence, where d is the effective dimensionality of the ferromagnet. In the opposite "dirty limit" the density-of-states correction is a non-monotonous function of energy and temperature.
    • Alessandro Ricottone, Jeroen Danon, Piet W. Brouwer
      DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/15/12/123036
      1310.3511v1 [pdf]

    • Epitaxial aluminum contacts to InAs nanowires - Abstract
      • We report a method for making epitaxial superconducting contacts to semiconducting nanowires. The temperature and gate characteristics demonstrate barrier-free electrical contact, and the properties in the superconducting state are investigated at low temperature. Half-covering aluminum contacts are realized without the need of lithography and we demonstrate how to controllably insert high-band gap layers in the interface region. These developments are relevant to hybrid superconductor-nanowire devices that support Majorana zero energy states.
    • 1309.4569v1 [pdf]
      N. L. B. Ziino, P. Krogstrup, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. B. Wagner, C. M. Marcus, J. Nygård, T. S. Jespersen

    • Theory of coherent dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots - Abstract
      • We consider the dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) using two electrons in a double quantum dot in presence of external magnetic field and spin-orbit interaction, in various schemes of periodically repeated sweeps through the S-T+ avoided crossing. By treating the problem semi-classically, we find that generally the DNP have two distinct contributions - a geometrical polarization and a dynamic polarization, which have different dependence on the control parameters such as the sweep rates and waiting times in each period. Both terms show non-trivial dependence on those control parameter. We find that even for small spin-orbit term, the dynamical polarization dominates the DNP in presence of a long waiting period near the S-T+ avoided crossing, of the order of the nuclear Larmor precession periods. A detailed numerical analysis of a specific control regime can explain the oscillations observed by Foletti et.~al.~in arXiv:0801.3613.
    • Izhar Neder, Mark S. Rudner, Bertrand I. Halperin
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.085403
      1309.3027v1 [pdf]

    • Hyperfine interactions in two-dimensional HgTe topological insulators - Abstract
      • We study the hyperfine interaction between the nuclear spins and the electrons in a HgTe quantum well, which is the prime experimentally realized example of a two-dimensional topological insulator. The hyperfine interaction is a naturally present, internal source of broken time-reversal symmetry from the point of view of the electrons. The HgTe quantum well is described by the so-called Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang (BHZ) model. The basis states of the BHZ model are combinations of both S- and P-like symmetry states, which means that three kinds of hyperfine interactions play a role: (i) The Fermi contact interaction, (ii) the dipole-dipole like coupling and (iii) the electron orbital to nuclear-spin coupling. We provide benchmark results for the forms and magnitudes of these hyperfine interactions within the BHZ model, which give a good starting point for evaluating hyperfine interactions in any HgTe nanostructure. We apply our results to the helical edge states of a HgTe two-dimensional topological insulator and show how their total hyperfine interaction becomes anisotropic and dependent on the orientation of the sample edge within the plane. Moreover, for the helical edge states the hyperfine interactions due to the P-like states can dominate over the S-like contribution in certain circumstances.
    • Anders Mathias Lunde, Gloria Platero
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 88, 115411 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.115411

    • Coupling Spin Qubits via Superconductors - Abstract
      • We show how superconductors can be used to couple, initialize, and read out spatially separated spin qubits. When two single-electron quantum dots are tunnel coupled to the same superconductor, the singlet component of the two-electron state partially leaks into the superconductor via crossed Andreev reflection. This induces a gate-controlled singlet-triplet splitting which, with an appropriate superconductor geometry, remains large for dot separations within the superconducting coherence length. Furthermore, we show that when two double-dot singlet-triplet qubits are tunnel coupled to a superconductor with finite charging energy, crossed Andreev reflection enables a strong two-qubit coupling over distances much larger than the coherence length.
    • Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 060501 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.060501

    • Direct observation of interface and nanoscale compositional modulation in ternary III-As heterostructure nanowires - Abstract
      • Straight, axial InAs nanowire with multiple segments of GaInAs were grown. High resolution X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping reveal the distribution of group III atoms at the axial interfaces and at the sidewalls. Significant Ga enrichment, accompanied by a structural change is observed at the GaInAs/InAs interfaces and a higher Ga concentration for the early grown GaInAs segments. The elemental map and EDS line profile infer Ga enrichment at the facet junctions between the sidewalls. The relative chemical potentials of ternary alloys and the thermodynamic driving force for liquid to solid transition explains the growth mechanisms behind the enrichment.
    • Sriram Venkatesan, Morten H. Madsen, Herbert Schmid, Peter Krogstrup, Erik Johnson, Christina Scheu
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 063106 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4818338

    • Temperature-dependent dynamical nuclear polarization bistabilities in double quantum dots in the spin-blockade regime - Abstract
      • The interplay of dynamical nuclear polarization (DNP) and leakage current through a double quantum dot in the spin-blockade regime is analyzed. A finite DNP is built up due to a competition between hyperfine (HF) spin-flip transitions and another inelastic escape mechanism from the triplets, which block transport. We focus on the temperature dependence of the DNP for zero energy-detuning (i.e. equal electrostatic energy of one electron in each dot and a singlet in the right dot). Our main result is the existence of a transition temperature, below which the DNP is bistable, so a hysteretic leakage current versus external magnetic field B appears. This is studied in two cases: (i) Close to the crossing of the three triplet energy levels near B=0, where spin-blockade is lifted due to the inhomogeneity of the effective magnetic field from the nuclei. (ii) At higher B-fields, where the two spin-polarized triplets simultaneously cross two different singlet energy levels. We develop simplified models leading to different transition temperatures T_TT and T_ST for the crossing of the triplet levels and the singlet-triplet level crossings, respectively. We find T_TT analytically to be given solely by the HF couplings, whereas T_ST depends on various parameters and T_ST>T_TT. The key idea behind the existence of the transition temperatures at zero energy-detuning is the suppression of energy absorption compared to emission in the inelastic HF transitions. Finally, by comparing the rate equation results with Monte Carlo simulations, we discuss the importance of having both HF interaction and another escape mechanism from the triplets to induce a finite DNP.
    • Anders Mathias Lunde, Carlos López-Monís, Ioanna A. Vasiliadou, Luis L. Bonilla, Gloria Platero
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 88, 035317 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.035317

    • Advances in the theory of III–V nanowire growth dynamics - Abstract
      • Nanowire (NW) crystal growth via the vapour_liquid_solid mechanism is a complex dynamic process involving interactions between many atoms of various thermodynamic states. With increasing speed over the last few decades many works have reported on various aspects of the growth mechanisms, both experimentally and theoretically. We will here propose a general continuum formalism for growth kinetics based on thermodynamic parameters and transition state kinetics. We use the formalism together with key elements of recent research to present a more overall treatment of III_V NW growth, which can serve as a basis to model and understand the dynamical mechanisms in terms of the basic control parameters, temperature and pressures/beam fluxes. Self-catalysed GaAs NW growth on Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy is used as a model system.
    • Peter Krogstrup, Henrik I. Jørgensen, Erik Johnson, Morten Hannibal Madsen, Claus B. Sørensen, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Martin Aagesen, Jesper Nygård, Frank Glas
      Journal reference: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 (2013) 313001 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/46/31/313001

    • In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized silicon particles - Abstract
      • Silicon-based micro and nanoparticles have gained popularity in a wide range of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability in-vivo, as well as a flexible surface chemistry, which allows drug loading, functionalization and targeting. Here we report direct in-vivo imaging of hyperpolarized 29Si nuclei in silicon microparticles by MRI. Natural physical properties of silicon provide surface electronic states for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), extremely long depolarization times, insensitivity to the in-vivo environment or particle tumbling, and surfaces favorable for functionalization. Potential applications to gastrointestinal, intravascular, and tumor perfusion imaging at sub-picomolar concentrations are presented. These results demonstrate a new background-free imaging modality applicable to a range of inexpensive, readily available, and biocompatible Si particles.
    • M. C. Cassidy, H. R. Chan, B. D. Ross, P. K. Bhattacharya, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 8, 363 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.65

    • Synthesis of Long - Abstract
      • We describe the synthesis, materials characterization and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoparticles for use as hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents. The particles were synthesized by means of a metathesis reaction between sodium silicide (Na4Si4) and silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and were surface functionalized with a variety of passivating ligands. The synthesis scheme results in particles of diameter ~10 nm with long size-adjusted 29Si spin lattice relaxation (T1) times (> 600 s), which are retained after hyperpolarization by low temperature DNP.
    • Tonya M. Atkins, Maja C. Cassidy, Menyoung Lee, Shreyashi Ganguly, Charles M. Marcus, Susan M. Kauzlarich
      Journal reference: ACS Nano 7, 1609 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1021/nn305462y

    • Quantum-Dot-Based Resonant Exchange Qubit - Abstract
      • We introduce a solid-state qubit in which exchange interactions among confined electrons provide both the static longitudinal field and the oscillatory transverse field, allowing rapid and full qubit control via rf gate-voltage pulses. We demonstrate two-axis control at a detuning sweet-spot, where leakage due to hyperfine coupling is suppressed by the large exchange gap. A {\pi}/2-gate time of 2.5 ns and a coherence time of 19 {\mu}s, using multi-pulse echo, are also demonstrated. Model calculations that include effects of hyperfine noise are in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment.
    • J. Medford, J. Beil, J. M. Taylor, E. I. Rashba, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 050501 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.050501

    • Interaction effects in electric transport through self-assembled molecular monolayers - Abstract
      • We theoretically investigate the effect of inter-molecular Coulomb interactions on transport through molecular monolayers (or other devices based on a large number of nanoscale conductors connected in parallel). Due to the interactions, the current through different molecules become correlated, resulting in distinct features in the non-linear current-voltage characteristics, as we show by deriving and solving a type of modified master equation, suitable for describing transport through an infinite number of interacting conductors. Furthermore, if some of the molecules fail to bond to both electrodes, charge traps can be induced at high voltages and block transport through neighboring molecules, resulting in negative differential resistance.
    • Martin Leijnse
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 87, 125417 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.125417

    • Pauli Spin Blockade and the Ultrasmall Magnetic Field Effect - Abstract
      • Based on the spin-blockade model for organic magnetoresistance we present an analytic expression for the polaron-bipolaron transition rate, taking into account the effective nuclear fields on the sites. We reveal the physics producing qualitatively different magnetoconductance line shapes as well as the ultrasmall magnetic field effect, and we study the role of the ratio between the intersite hopping rate and the typical magnitude of the nuclear fields. Our findings are in agreement with recent experiments and numerical simulations.
    • Jeroen Danon, Xuhui Wang, Aurélien Manchon
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.066802
      1303.5852v1 [pdf]

    • Superconductor-nanowire devices from tunneling to the multichannel regime: Zero-bias oscillations and magnetoconductance crossover - Abstract
      • We present transport measurements in superconductor-nanowire devices with a gated constriction forming a quantum point contact. Zero-bias features in tunneling spectroscopy appear at finite magnetic fields, and oscillate in amplitude and split away from zero bias as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage. A crossover in magnetoconductance is observed: Magnetic fields above ~ 0.5 T enhance conductance in the low-conductance (tunneling) regime but suppress conductance in the high-conductance (multichannel) regime. We consider these results in the context of Majorana zero modes as well as alternatives, including Kondo effect and analogs of 0.7 structure in a disordered nanowire.
    • H. O. H. Churchill, V. Fatemi, K. Grove-Rasmussen, M. T. Deng, P. Caroff, H. Q. Xu, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 87, 241401(R) (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.241401

    • Spin-flip phonon-mediated charge relaxation in double quantum dots - Abstract
      • We theoretically study the $(1,1)$ triplet to $(0,2)$ singlet relaxation rate in a lateral gate-defined double quantum dot tuned to the regime of Pauli spin blockade. We present a detailed derivation of the effective phonon density of states for this specific charge transition, keeping track of the contribution from piezoelectric as well as deformation potential electron-phonon coupling. We further investigate two different spin-mixing mechanisms which can couple the triplet and singlet states: a magnetic field gradient over the double dot (relevant at low external magnetic field) and spin-orbit interaction (relevant at high field), and we also indicate how the two processes could interfere at intermediate magnetic field. Finally, we show how to combine all results and evaluate the relaxation rate for realistic system parameters.
    • J. Danon
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.075306
      1302.7169v1 [pdf]

    • Self-consistent measurement and state tomography of an exchange-only spin qubit - Abstract
      • We report initialization, complete electrical control, and single-shot readout of an exchange-only spin qubit. Full control via the exchange interaction is fast, yielding a demonstrated 75 qubit rotations in under 2 ns. Measurement and state tomography are performed using a maximum-likelihood estimator method, allowing decoherence, leakage out of the qubit state space, and measurement fidelity to be quantified. The methods developed here are generally applicable to systems with state leakage, noisy measurements, and non-orthogonal control axes.
    • J. Medford, J. Beil, J. M. Taylor, S. D. Bartlett, A. C. Doherty, E. I. Rashba, D. P. DiVincenzo, H. Lu, A. C. Gossard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Nature Nanotechnology 8, 654 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.168

    • Observation and spectroscopy of a two-electron Wigner molecule in an ultraclean carbon nanotube - Abstract
      • Coulomb interactions can have a decisive effect on the ground state of electronic systems. The simplest system in which interactions can play an interesting role is that of two electrons on a string. In the presence of strong interactions the two electrons are predicted to form a Wigner molecule, separating to the ends of the string due to their mutual repulsion. This spatial structure is believed to be clearly imprinted on the energy spectrum, yet to date a direct measurement of such a spectrum in a controllable one-dimensional setting is still missing. Here we use an ultra-clean suspended carbon nanotube to realize this system in a tunable potential. Using tunneling spectroscopy we measure the excitation spectra of two interacting carriers, electrons or holes, and identify seven low-energy states characterized by their spin and isospin quantum numbers. These states fall into two multiplets according to their exchange symmetries. The formation of a strongly-interacting Wigner molecule is evident from the small energy splitting measured between the two multiplets, that is quenched by an order of magnitude compared to the non-interacting value. Our ability to tune the two-electron state in space and to study it for both electrons and holes provides an unambiguous demonstration of the fundamental Wigner molecule state.
    • S. Pecker, F. Kuemmeth, A. Secchi, M. Rontani, D. C. Ralph, P. L. McEuen, S. Ilani
      Journal reference: Nature Physics 9, 576-581 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphys2692

    • Single-nanowire solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit - Abstract
      • Light management is of great importance to photovoltaic cells, as it determines the fraction of incident light entering the device. An optimal pn-junction combined with an optimal light absorption can lead to a solar cell efficiency above the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show how this is possible by studying photocurrent generation for a single core-shell p-i-n junction GaAs nanowire solar cell grown on a silicon substrate. At one sun illumination a short circuit current of 180 mA/cm^2 is obtained, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than what would be predicted from Lambert-Beer law. The enhanced light absorption is shown to be due to a light concentrating property of the standing nanowire as shown by photocurrent maps of the device. The results imply new limits for the maximum efficiency obtainable with III-V based nanowire solar cells under one sun illumination.
    • Peter Krogstrup, Henrik Ingerslev Jørgensen, Martin Heiss, Olivier Demichel, Jeppe V. Holm, Martin Aagesen, Jesper Nygard, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral
      Journal reference: Nature Photonics 7, 306-310 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.32

    • Tunneling Spectroscopy of Quasiparticle Bound States in a Spinful Josephson Junction - Abstract
      • The spectrum of a segment of InAs nanowire, confined between two superconducting leads, was measured as function of gate voltage and superconducting phase difference using a third normal-metal tunnel probe. Sub-gap resonances for odd electron occupancy---interpreted as bound states involving a confined electron and a quasiparticle from the superconducting leads, reminiscent of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states---evolve into Kondo-related resonances at higher magnetic fields. An additional zero bias peak of unknown origin is observed to coexist with the quasiparticle bound states.
    • W. Chang, V. E. Manucharyan, T. S. Jespersen, J. Nygard, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 217005 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.217005

    • Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires - Abstract
      • The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also demonstrate that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.
    • Alberto Casadei, Peter Krogstrup, Martin Heiss, Jason A. Röhr, Carlo Colombo, Thibaud Ruelle, Shivendra Upadhyay, Claus B. Sørensen, Jesper Nygård, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral
      Journal reference: Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013117 (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1063/1.4772020

    • Radical-free dynamic nuclear polarization using electronic defects in silicon - Abstract
      • Direct dynamic nuclear polarization of 1H nuclei in frozen water and water-ethanol mixtures is demonstrated using silicon nanoparticles as the polarizing agent. Electron spins at dangling-bond sites near the silicon surface are identified as the source of the nuclear hyperpolarization. This novel polarization method open new avenues for the fabrication of surface engineered nanostructures to create high nuclear-spin polarized solutions without introducing contaminating radicals, and for the study of molecules adsorbed onto surfaces.
    • M. C. Cassidy, C. Ramanathan, D. G. Cory, J. W. Ager, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 87, 161306(R) (2013) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.161306

  • 2012
    • Introduction to topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions - Abstract
      • This short review article provides a pedagogical introduction to the rapidly growing research field of Majorana fermions in topological superconductors. We first discuss in some details the simplest "toy model" in which Majoranas appear, namely a one-dimensional tight-binding representation of a p-wave superconductor, introduced more than ten years ago by Kitaev. We then give a general introduction to the remarkable properties of Majorana fermions in condensed matter systems, such as their intrinsically non-local nature and exotic exchange statistics, and explain why these quasiparticles are suspected to be especially well suited for low-decoherence quantum information processing. We also discuss the experimentally promising (and perhaps already successfully realized) possibility of creating topological superconductors using semiconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling, proximity-coupled to standard s-wave superconductors and exposed to a magnetic field. The goal is to provide an introduction to the subject for experimentalists or theorists who are new to the field, focusing on the aspects which are most important for understanding the basic physics. The text should be accessible for readers with a basic understanding of quantum mechanics and second quantization, and does not require knowledge of quantum field theory or topological states of matter.
    • Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 124003 (2012) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1088/0268-1242/27/12/124003

    • Parity qubits and poor man's Majorana bound states in double quantum dots - Abstract
      • We study a double quantum dot connected via a common superconducting lead and show that this system can be tuned to host one Majorana bound state (MBS) on each dot. We call them "poor man's Majorana bound states" since they are not topologically protected, but otherwise share the properties of MBS formed in topological superconductors. We describe the conditions for the existence of the two spatially separated MBS, which include breaking of spin degeneracy in the two dots, with the spins polarized in different directions. Therefore, we propose to use a magnetic field configuration where the field directions on the two dot form an angle. By control of this angle the cross Andreev reflection and the tunnel amplitudes can be tuned to be approximately equal, which is a requirement for the formation of the MBS. We show that the fermionic state encoded in the two Majoranas constitutes a parity qubit, which is non-local and can only be measured by probing both dots simultaneously. Using a many-particle basis for the MBS, we discuss the role of interactions and show that inter-dot interactions always lift the degeneracy. We also show how the MBS can be probed by transport measurements and discuss how the combination of several such double dot systems allows for entanglement of parity qubits and measurement of their dephasing times.
    • Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B. 86, 134528 (2012) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.134528

    • nan - Abstract
      • We demonstrate gate control of the electronic g-tensor in single and double quantum dots formed along a bend in a carbon nanotube. From the dependence of the single-dot excitation spectrum on magnetic field magnitude and direction, we extract spin-orbit coupling, valley coupling, spin and orbital magnetic moments. Gate control of the g-tensor is measured using the splitting of the Kondo peak in conductance as a sensitive probe of Zeeman energy. In the double quantum dot regime, the magnetic field dependence of the position of cotunneling lines in the two dimensional charge stability diagram is used to infer the positions of the two dots along the nanotube.
    • R. A. Lai, H. O. H. Churchill, C. M. Marcus
      Journal reference: Physical Review B 89, 121303(R) 2014 [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.121303

    • Finite-bias conductance anomalies at a singlet-triplet crossing - Abstract
      • Quantum dots and single-molecule transistors may exhibit level crossings induced by tuning external parameters such as magnetic field or gate voltage. For Coulomb blockaded devices, this shows up as an inelastic cotunneling threshold in the differential conductance, which can be tuned to zero at the crossing. Here we show that, in addition, level crossings can give rise to a nearly vertical step-edge, ridge or even a Fano-like ridge-valley feature in the differential conductance inside the relevant Coulomb diamond. We study a gate-tunable quasidegeneracy between singlet and triplet ground states, and demonstrate how these different shapes may result from a competition between nonequilibrium occupations and weak (spin-orbit) mixing of the states. Our results are shown to be in qualitative agreement with recent transport measurements on a Mn complex [E. A. Osorio, et al., Nano Lett. 10, 105 (2010)]. The effect remains entirely general and should be observable in a wide range of Coulomb blockaded devices.
    • Chiara Stevanato, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg, Jens Paaske
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 86, 165427 (2012) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.165427

    • Hybrid topological-spin qubit systems for two-qubit-spin gates - Abstract
      • We investigate a hybrid quantum system involving spin qubits, based on the spins of electrons confined in quantum dots, and topological qubits, based on Majorana fermions. In such a system, gated control of the charge on the quantum dots allows transfer of quantum information between the spin and topological qubits, and the topological system can be used to facilitate transfer of spin qubits between spatially separated quantum dots and to initialize entangled spin-qubit pairs. Here, we show that the coupling to the topological system also makes it possible to perform entangling two-qubit gates on spatially separated spin qubits. The two-qubit gates are based on a combination of topologically protected braiding operations, gate-controlled charge transfer between the dots and edge Majorana modes, and measurements of the state of the topological qubits.
    • Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Phys. Rev. B 86, 104511 (2012) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.104511

    • Parallel carbon nanotube quantum dots and their interactions - Abstract
      • We present quantum transport measurements of interacting parallel quantum dots formed in the strands of a carbon nanotube rope. In this molecular quantum dot system, transport is dominated by one quantum dot, while additional resonances from parallel side dots appear, which exhibit a weak gate coupling. This differential gating effect provides a tunability of the quantum dot system with only one gate electrode and provides control over the carbon nanotube strand that carries the current. By tuning the system to different states we use quantum transport as a spectroscopic tool to investigate the inter-dot coupling and show a route to distinguish between various side dots. By comparing the experimental data with master equation calculations, we identify conditions for the tunneling rates that are required in order to observe different manifestations of the inter-dot coupling in the transport spectra.
    • Karin Goß, Martin Leijnse, Sebastian Smerat, Maarten R. Wegewijs, Claus M. Schneider, Carola Meyer
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.035424
      1208.5860v1 [pdf]

    • Emerging Dirac and Majorana fermions for carbon nanotubes with proximity-induced pairing and spiral magnetic field - Abstract
      • We study the low-energy bandstructure of armchair and small-bandgap semiconducting carbon nanotubes with proximity-induced superconducting pairing when a spiral magnetic field creates strong effective spin-orbit interactions from the Zeeman term and a periodic potential from the orbital part. We find that gapless Dirac fermions can be generated by variation of a single parameter. For a semiconducting tube with the field in the same plane, a non-degenerate zero mode at momentum k=0 can be induced, allowing for the generation of topologically protected Majorana fermion end states.
    • Reinhold Egger, Karsten Flensberg
      Journal reference: Physical Review B 85, 235462 (2012) [pdf]
      DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.235462